Category Archives: New Essays

Explain what is meant in the Bible by the phrase “God is good.”

A) Explain what is meant in the Bible by the phrase “God is good.”

Many worshippers of God like to believe that he is intrinsically good; this means that he is good in himself. People try to argue this by the Bible and through many things in the Bible such as the 10 commandments and the creation of the universe as well as the many miracles of the Saints. God is seen to act morally good as he creates a world which is seen to be good, therefore he must be. “God saw that it was good, and it was good.”

The Ten Commandments show us what good is according to God. The Ten Commandments explain to us how we should act and what our religious and social duties should be. God could be said to be showing his love for this through these laws. Another common biblical image of God is that of a judge to whom we all answer to, however, if God is seen as a judge “Psalms 75:7 But God is the Judge; He puts down one and exalts another,” then he must be trying to divide the good from the bad, we could see this as God trying to protect the people who worship him from the sinners, however it is hard to distinguish the bad from the good. The Ten Commandments offer a guide for this, so that we can see what is wrong and what is right, so therefore we could see this as a good act of God as throughout the Bible God demonstrates his desire for justice for his people. People may follow the Ten Commandments because they are scared of the possibility of going to Hell or that they are so full of faith for the Lord that they follow them without thinking, that if it is the wish of God then they must act and follow these rules. The Old Testament displays God as being vengeful and punishing those who sin, whereas in the New he is seen as being forgiving and loving. These are two sides of God which keep people obeying the Ten Commandments, as there are two opinions of him, one that he is punishing and the other that he is forgiving. God also punishes those because he loves all people and love involves showing another what they have done is wrong so they can learn from it. God could be seen as good, as even though he punishes those who have sinned, if they repent they can go to Heaven, which means he gives everyone a chance.

God is a transcendent being therefore some people believe that we cannot understand God’s actions as it is far too complex for us to comprehend. This is written in the Bible with the story of Issac and Abraham. In Genesis 22 as a test for Abraham God says to him “Take your son, your only son, Issac, whom you love, and go to the region of Moriah. Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering.” Abraham responded to God’s command with immediate obedience. Christians believe that if we obey God without question and trust that His plan is best we exalt His qualities and praise Him. Due to Abraham’s unwavering trust and faith in God provides Christians with an example they must follow. As God saw Abraham’s belief in Him an Angel came down to Abraham and told him he could sacrifice a ram instead. God uses Abraham’s faith as an example of the type of faith required for salvation. This type of faith in the Lord is the basis for the Christian religion and that we should follow in this way when we receive the Christian faith for the sacrifice God made for our sins, Jesus Christ. We may not know what He has planned but that it must be for the greater good so we must follow His wishes.

Not only do people have faith in God, but in the Bible and that we are lead to believe God is good and nothing else. Jesus Christ preformed many miracles in the Bible such as feeding the 5,000, raising a widow’s son from the dead and healing a paralysed man as well as many more. Not only that but there are over 10,000 people that have been canonised including St. Joan of Arc, St. Francis of Assisi and St. Valentine. To become a Saint you have to perform a miracle and it be recognised by the Catholic Church. Miracles bring much happiness and joy to people and the act can rarely be explained, surely these acts are a great act of God and must be good if they bring happiness. People also believe God is good because he keeps human kind in some sort of order. Law breaking is bad therefore we are punished if we do break the law. The law is there to make us be good individuals and do the right thing according to society. When we follow the law we are told we are being good and are rewarded with a chance to go to Heaven, this is told to us in the Bible. A chance at getting to Heaven is an incentive for us to do good deeds and abide the law. We then read from this that if we are good we are rewarded and if we are bad we are punished which keeps people abiding by the law and why so many people over thousands of years have been scared at the prospect of going to Hell. People could view this as God keeping us in line and not letting us stray and do the wrong thing; in essence he is saving us from going to Hell by creating laws and putting them in place so we know what is right and wrong.

In conclusion, the phrase “God is good” in the Bible means that God in himself is good, he can never be otherwise as he is just good. His acts are good and the punishment he inflicts on others is so they change their ways and realise what they’ve done and repent their sins. He does this out of love for every human as we are created in his image and he wants us all to be cleansed of sin and go to Heaven. He uses the Ten Commandments to set these guidelines for us and help us on our journey to Heaven as well as showing us some of his goodness with the miracles that can occur in this world. The miracles that we hear of in the Bible make many people wonder what Heaven is actually like if something so great is described and it makes people seek out repentance as well as being good ourselves so we are allowed to go to Heaven.

B) “It is difficult to believe in a God who is perfectly good.” (10)

Many sceptics of God and the Christian faith think that it’s hard to believe there is a God that is good in himself and can’t be anything but that. Not only that but many people also believe that he is not good, as so much punishment is shown in the Old Testament and the idea that God created Hell in the first place to punish people who sin. People argue that if God is omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent and omnibenevolent he would not let natural disasters to happen, even though Christians say natural disasters happen to punish humankind for our sins.

The Lord God of the Scriptures says this about himself. “For the Lord your God is a consuming fire, a jealous God.” As well as this, it is also written in Psalm 5:5 “You hate all who do wrong,” therefore it is hard to believe that God is a forgiving and loving God who accepts everyone, if he hates all who do wrong, even if they are regretful about it. In many different scriptures God is described as wrathful and punishes those who do wrong, this was most likely written to stop people from sinning and obey the 10 Commandments. This still does not make people want to believe in him, however, and many people question whether God can be perfectly good if he is punishing those who do the slightest thing wrong even if it was to help someone else. If God is being described as jealous and hateful, then we can deduce that he is not all good as he has a capacity to hate, which is seen as negative by most. He is also described as warmongering as he constantly is battling evil and Satan. People could say these wars are necessary and that he must protect us from Hell and the Devil, however in the New Testament it completely goes against this describing him as peaceful and forgiving so it is difficult to know whether he is punishing the sinners for the rest of humankind’s benefit or that he is just being hateful towards anyway who slightly steps out of line.

Moreover, the story of Abraham and Issac also challenge our idea of God being all peaceful as he asks Abraham to sacrifice his son which he is willing to do. A lot of non-believers would ask why God asks this in the first place as it seems completely morally wrong to tell a father to kill his only child. Christians argue this was to test Abraham’s faith in God, but surely Abraham would feel conflicted about doing this if he cared for Issac at all. This could tell people who do not believe in God that God almost corrupts people who worship him as they think that is the most important thing to do in life and nothing else. This could be an example of one of the ways God isn’t perfectly good if he commands the people who follow him to kill their own children to prove they have faith in him.

Not only that but if there is evil in the world to start with, God must have created this evil, therefore how can he be all good? God created Hell and all his Angels, Lucifer, one of his angels was cast out from Heaven and sent to Hell where he became known as the Devil. God did not create evil as nothing evil can come from God. Satan and other demons were at first good angels, created by God, but they became evil of their own free will, given by God. This “fall” was a free choice of these created spirits, who rejected God and his reign. Therefore Christians would say that it was not God’s fault however he created Heaven and Hell therefore he must have known or
considered there to be some evil in the world.

Many people can see why Christians believe in God, that there are so many different texts saying he is our protector and that he loves humankind and is forgiving and all-knowing. However I do agree with the statement “It is difficult to believe in a God who is perfectly good,” as there are many texts that also say he is vengeful, wrathful and warmongering. It says he is hateful and that he condemns sinners so it’s hard to believe in a God when there are two sides to the story. When there are stories of God commanding people to kill their children to prove their faith and that God created Hell in the first place. Christians like to believe in God for security as they believe him to be intrinsically good, but how do they know this is true when there is so much punishment and hate in some of the scriptures describing him. This is why many people are sceptical that he exists and if he is actually all good.

Hero or villain – Christopher columbus

1 Introduction
The foundation of America is commonly known as one of the major developments in the history of our planet and is accredited to a man named Christopher Columbus, who therefor became a symbol of achievement. Columbus is associated with exploration, science, and progress and stands for everything people admire. The fact that his way to glory caused the suffering and death of millions of people is often forgotten preventing his image from losing its function as a role model. Analyzing primary, literary sources, however, we are able to get a decent look on the person of Christopher Columbus and his motives. Starting with (2.1) essential background knowledge on the circumstances of his time and continuing with (2.2) information about Columbus and his journey, this paper will address (2.3) Columbus’s motives and show that despite his utmost efforts of presenting himself and his actions in a favorable way, Columbus’s Letter to Lord Raphael Sanchez, Treasurer of Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Spain on His first Voyage (1493) reveals subtextual flaws of the heroic Columbus foreshadowing the negative impact of his actions.

2 The Story of Christopher Columbus
2.1 Background
In current times events on one continent have a direct influence on the other continents whether it is for good or bad. Starting in the 15 th century, these connections developed quite recently and in some sense can be retraced to Christopher Columbus and his voyages (cf. Phillips et al. 1992: 1). Back in the early days of Christopher Columbus, Europe, Africa, and Asia were each part of the Old Wolrd of the eastern hemisphere, however, they were separated culturally, religiously, and politically. Being connected by sea and land routes the people of the Old World were aware of one another’s existence. The western hemisphere, on the other hand, was completely seperated from the Old World. Columbus unplanned discovery of America – actually he was looking for a way to Asia sailing west – shattered the isolation of the Old – and the New World. Different authors such as Phillips and Phillips state that Columbus’s voyages are “arguably the most fateful encounter between disparate human groups that history has ever known” (Phillips et al. 2

1992: 1). Especially, the fact that advanced civilization had already existed for thousands of years make this discovery so important because due to this all great civilizations of our planet became aware of one another for the first time in human history (cf. Phillips et al. 1992: 3). Although Columbus’s achievements were unintended he is commonly praised as a hero for his discovery but even though it was significant for the development of our planet we have to keep in mind that many people suffered under the impact of Columbus’s actions.

2.2 Columbus and His Journey
Christopher Columbus was born and raised in Genoa, Italy. His early seafaring experience was obtained in the service of the Portuguese (cf. Brinkley 1999: 13). His obsession with the idea of finding Asia by sailing west (cf. Penguin Classics, ed. Giles Gunn, 1994: 25) did not get any supporters there, so he turned to Spain where he found support from King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile. With their approval Columbus commanded a crew of ninety men sailing with three ships – “the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria” (Brinkley 1999: 13). He left Spain in August 1492 sailing west into the Atlantic. When he found land after ten weeks, he assumed he had been successful, which can be sen in the very first line of his letter to Raphael Sanchez, “Sir, since I know that you will take pleasure at the great victory [….]” (Columbus 1493: 26). On October 12, 1492 Columbus made his first contact with Americans (cf. Phillips 1992: 155) and since he “was so certain he had reached the Indies […] he named the natives Indians” (Penguin Classics: 26). Phillips and Phillips state that “they could see naked people on the beach, watching them arrive” (155). Even though Columbus knew that the island was inhabited, he carried the royal banner and spoke the standard proclamation for taking possession of land for the crown naming the island San Salvador (cf. Phillips et al. 1992: 155). What the natives thought of all this seemed to be irrelevant for Columbus. “The Indians call it Guanahani” is what Columbus is telling Sanchez in his letter (Columbus 1493: 26) knowing that they did not speak the same language. As he continues, he states that “nobody objected” (26) using the different languages as an advantage. Even though failing his plan to get to Asia Columbus always claimed that it was God who led his way. “God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth”, he wrote near the end of his life, “and he showed me the spot where to find it” (cf. Brinkley 1999: 15). Studying his letter to 3

Lord Raphael Sanchez we can find evidence for how Columbus’s motives changed throughout his voyages giving insight into some unfavorable aspects of his personality and indicating what this has led to.

2.3 Columbus’s Motives
„Religious piety, dreams of wealth, the desire for glory, scientific curiosity, an extraordinary egotism, and much more” are the motives attributed to Columbus in the preface to his letter to Raphael Sanchez (cf. Penguin Classics, ed. Giles Gunn, 1994: 25). Analyzing Columbus’s letter there are many passages that verify these motives while foreshadowing what sacrifices had to be made on his way to glory. Starting with the excessive use of the word “I” and accrediting himself with every achievement without mentioning his crew in any profitable way is a straight forward example for Columbus’s egotism and vanity. “ […] in twenty days I reached the Indies with the fleet which the most illustrious King and Queen, our lords, gave to me. And there I found very many islands filled with people without number, and of them all I have taken possession for their Highnesses, by proclamation and with the royal standard displayed, and nobody objected” (26).

Throughout the whole letter this self-referetiality contradicts with his detailed description of the environment he is situated in, which otherwise was a praisable aspect referring to the scientific curiosity mentioned earlier. As the letter continues, this scientific curiosity is quickly shifting towards an interest in listing everything that could be of use in future times. In this process Columbus states that the natives “all go naked” and he continues, “they have no iron or steel weapons, nor are they capable of using them” (27). On a subtextual level he hereby explains that they are not a threat and could easily be captured and enslaved. Phillips and Phillips even claim that “Columbus unashamedly waged war against the native inhabitants of the Caribbean and enslaved hundreds of them, hoping to profit from a transatlantic slave trade” (Phillips et al. 1992: 6). Since this happened without royal order it makes Columbus the first slave trader of the New World. Even if this was not his main goal at the time he wrote the letter, his attempts of presenting himself nicely are overlaid by a sense of exploitation. Additionally the motive of religious piety i.e. the desire to spread Christianity embodies a missionary zeal which expresses a perfect justification

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covering a lust for gold and glory. Each of those three aspects (presenting himself nicely, the sense of exploitation, and the missionary zeal) are to be found in the following passage:
“I gave them a thousand good, pleasing things which I had brought in order that they might be fond of us, and furthermore might be made Christians and be inclined to the love and service of their Highnesses and of the whole Catilian nation, and try to help us and to give us of the things which they have in abundance and which are necessary to us. […] And as soon as I arrived in the Indies, in the first island which I found, I took by force some of them in order that they might learn [Castilian] and give me information [….] (28). Coming to the end of his letter, Columbus’s register if achievements is reaching its peak with him mentioning that everything discovered is useful and easily taken possesion of: “In conclusion to speak only of that which has been accomplished in this voyage, which was so hurried, their Highnesses can see that I shall give them as much gold as they want if their Highnesses will render me a little help; besides spice and cotton, as much as their Highnesses shall command; and gum mastic, as much as their Highnesses shall order shipped, and which, up to now, has been found only in Greece, in the island of Chios, and the Seignory sells it for what it pleases; and aloe wood, as much as they shall order shipped, and slaves, as many as they shall order, who will be idolaters. And I believe that I have found rhubarb and cinnamon, and I shall find a thousand other things of value [….]” (31).

3 Conclusion
Foreshadowing the impact Columbus’s voyage would have, his letter to Raphael Sanchez is giving us an image of Christopher Columbus as it is not commonly seen. After his voyages there has never been a time when the major civilizations of the world have lost contact to each other, never a time when major events could have only local consequences. As important as this development was for our planet, we must not forget what price had to be paid in order to get there. Overall, analyzing Columbus’s letter effectively showed us that primary sources hold the truth to history.

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Bibliography
Brinkley, Alan. Amerocan History – A survey, Volume 1: to 1877. 10th Edition. McGraw-Hill College, 1999.
Columbus, Cristopher. (1451?-1506): “from a Letter to Lord Raphael Sanchez, Treasurer to Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Spain, on His First Voyage (1493)”. Early American Writing. Ed. Giles Gunn. Penguin Classics, 1994. 25-31. Phillips, William D. Jr. And Phillips, Carla Rahn. The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge, 1992.

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Ikea environment

IKEA -basic information on the company -what they have done on the environmental section -specific case if ikea has had problems with customers or the law ~sustainability is the word~ In today’s fast-paced world of swift technological change, the level of knowledge and training held by Apple’s employees is imperative to their ability to remain a key competitor in a highly competitive market. It is necessary for employees to be in a continuous learning mode, and it is evident through Apple’s recent investments in training their rapidly growing number of employees.

As of 2010, Apple Inc. employed 49,400 employees on a full time basis. That number has risen 34. 2% from 2009, a clear reflection of company efforts to foster formidable growth through innovations, development, and market ability. Employee satisfaction is also relatively high at Apple. Their “Think Different” philosophy is evident through all levels of operations, from product development and marketing, to the corporate culture amongst employees. http://www. iisd. org/business/viewcasestudy. aspx? id=119 the packaging materials are made from renewable, recyclable or recycled materials.

they strive towards resource and energy independancy: By the end of FY20, the IKEA Group will produce as much renewable energy as we consume in our operations. IKEA Group Sustainability report 2012. LOGOT: FSC, Greenpeace, wwf.. http://www. huffingtonpost. com/2013/03/18/ikea-secrets-horse-meat_n_2411475. html#slide=2219234 In today’s fast-paced world of swift technological change, the level of knowledge and training held by Apple’s employees is imperative to their ability to remain a key competitor in a highly competitive market.

It is necessary for employees to be in a continuous learning mode, and it is evident through Apple’s recent investments in training their rapidly growing number of employees. As of 2010, Apple Inc. employed 49,400 employees on a full time basis. That number has risen 34. 2% from 2009, a clear reflection of company efforts to foster formidable growth through innovations, development, and market ability. Employee satisfaction is also relatively high at Apple. Their “Think Different” philosophy is evident through all levels of operations, from product development and marketing, to the corporate culture amongst employees.

In today’s fast-paced world of swift technological change, the level of knowledge and training held by Apple’s employees is imperative to their ability to remain a key competitor in a highly competitive market. It is necessary for employees to be in a continuous learning mode, and it is evident through Apple’s recent investments in training their rapidly growing number of employees. As of 2010, Apple Inc. employed 49,400 employees on a full time basis. That number has risen 34.

2% from 2009, a clear reflection of company efforts to foster formidable growth through innovations, development, and market ability. Employee satisfaction is also relatively high at Apple. Their “Think Different” philosophy is evident through all levels of operations, from product development and marketing, to the corporate culture amongst employees. In today’s fast-paced world of swift technological change, the level of knowledge and training held by Apple’s employees is imperative to their ability to remain a key competitor in a highly competitive market.

It is necessary for employees to be in a continuous learning mode, and it is evident through Apple’s recent investments in training their rapidly growing number of employees. As of 2010, Apple Inc. employed 49,400 employees on a full time basis. That number has risen 34. 2% from 2009, a clear reflection of company efforts to foster formidable growth through innovations, development, and market ability. Employee satisfaction is also relatively high at Apple. Their “Think Different” philosophy is evident through all levels of operations, from product development and marketing, to the corporate culture amongst employees.

Online clothing store

Dear Sir, With due respect & humble submission, we undertook our term paper under your direct supervision & guidance. As you will notice the report consist about Online clothing store . We have discussed the report on our T-Shirt store. And this has made the report a complete and an extensive one. Therefore, we are confident of the validity of our term paper. If you have any questions or suggestion about the report, we would be happy to oblige for any further clarification. Sincerely, ———————————- Farshid Iftekhar (On behafe of the group) Iii Acknowledgement

All praises are due to Almighty Allah who enabled us to complete this report. This report is about “Online clothing store” on the topic we have covered by the basis of the instruction given by the Course Instructor. We would like to express our sincere gratitude & appreciation to our supervisor Rubaiyat Bin Arif. It would not have been possible for us to complete this report without her help, advice & overall supervision. Her constant encouragement & supervision throughout the period of this study have been greatest inducement for us & directly contributed to the accomplishment of the task.

Equally, we would also like to express our sincere gratitude & indebtedness to the authority of United International University for their kind co-operation. It gives us the opportunity to work on such a term paper by using practical information of the “Online clothing store”. Accomplishing the report, we gathered a thorough idea & view on various issues. Table of Content Introduction…………………………………………… 1 Methodology…………………………………………. 2 Limitation or Problems of study…………….. 3 Website…………………………………………………. 4 Breakeven…………………………………………….. 5 Value chain ……………………………………………. 7 Organ gram…………………………………………….

11 Revenue model……………………………………… 12 Logo …………………………………………………….. 14 Conclusion……………………………………………… 20 Abstract Online retail sales have boomed as more people get high-speed internet connections and time-pressed shoppers take advantage of shopping from home or work, according to industry observers. Shopping on the net is expected to see high sales. Marketing an online T-shirt business can be a challenge. Even if you have an interesting line of shirts, shoppers can’t buy from your company if they don’t know about it. Get to know your target customers well through market research.

Stay informed about current trends to design the T-shirts your customers want at a price they’ll pay. A memorable company name that customers associate with your T-shirts can also go a long way to building your company’s reputation and sales. They are the same online design clothing stores that are most famous in recent times . they take orders through online and deliver the goods at some specific spots specially in dhaka. as it is said earlier that unique design Tshirt are on high demand now a days and there are only w suppliers to satisfy the need of te market.

So there is a huge deficit in the supply aginstte demand . so our plan will surely have a positive impact over the need in the market . the target market for our business will be the youth of Dhaka. School, college , university students. so our business plan has a huge potential regarding the market size. A good website should contain: 1 creative 2. simplicity of product line 3. colourful 4. variety of design. Executive Summary At current time unique in T-shirt design at reasonable price is in high demand. So to satisfy the need many people are taking different initiative towards earning profit.

Online clothing is one of the many approaches. The idea is to satisfy existing market demand through unique design T-shirt supply at a reasonable price. this is currently most profitable idea ttcost very little. unique design Tshirt are on high demand now a days and there are only w suppliers to satisfy the need of te market. So there is a huge deficit in the supply aginstte demand . so our plan will surely have a positive impact over the need in the market . the target market for our business will be the youth of Dhaka. School, college , university students.

so our business plan has a huge potential regarding the market size Customers obtain information about products then made their purchase by phone. Website display photos of T-shirt with price,colour and tailoring details. First customer have to write their name then phone number. then they have to write the T-shirt numer that customer selected. At last the location of delivery. . Introduction Online retail sales have boomed as more people get high-speed internet connections and time-pressed shoppers take advantage of shopping from home or work, according to industry observers.

Shopping on the net is expected to see high sales. Marketing an online T-shirt business can be a challenge. Even if you have an interesting line of shirts, shoppers can’t buy from your company if they don’t know about it. Get to know your target customers well through market research. Stay informed about current trends to design the T-shirts your customers want at a price they’ll pay. A memorable company name that customers associate with your T-shirts can also go a long way to building your company’s reputation and sales. At current time unique in T-shirt design at reasonable price is in high demand.

So to satisfy the need many people are taking different initiative towards earning profit. Online clothing is one of the many approaches. The idea is to satisfy existing market demand through unique design T-shirt supply at a reasonable price. this is currently most profitable idea ttcost very little. Regarding this form of business the existing competitors are Reebok, iFeri. com, pArico Clothing,valient,rioter and many more…. They are the same online design clothing stores that are most famous in recent times . they take orders through online and deliver the goods at some specific spots specially in dhaka.

as it is said earlier that unique design Tshirt are on high demand now a days and there are only w suppliers to satisfy the need of te market. So there is a huge deficit in the supply aginstte demand . so our plan will surely have a positive impact over the need in the market . the target market for our business will be the youth of Dhaka. School, college , university students. so our business plan has a huge potential regarding the market size. A good website should contain: 1 creative 2. simplicity of product line 3. colourful 4. variety of design. 1 Methodology

The research methodology is a procedure of collecting data to find out purpose. The research is exploratory in nature. Both the primary and secondary data is being used. For Primary data we used Group Discussion, For the secondary: Data, internet, Different texts. We observed Online clothing store. Presented and demonstrated to the selected respondents to analyze. 2 Limitation or Problems of study: There are some limitations of the study these are:- Website in different organization of Bangladesh contains poor information. We can’t talk or take more interviews because of:

Lack of time for preparing the report. Some of our interviewees don’t give much emphasis on it so it can create a bit information mismatch. Some of our interviewees were in hurry for this reason, we are not sure that they read our survey questions carefully or not. 3 Website: Customers obtain information about products then made their purchase by phone. Website display photos of T-shirt with price,colourand tailoring details. First customer have to write their name then phone number. then they have to write the T-shirt numer that customer selected.

At last the location of delivery. 4 Breakeven: Assumption 1st year 2nd year onwards Sales Growth Rate 2o% 30% First 3 months No Sale Sale will start at 4th month Initial sales quantity 30 Average Sale Price/Unit 700 5 COGS 300000 COGS include courier,design. Web Development 500000 Office Furniture 200000 Computer 200000 Machine 100000 initial investment 1000000 employee salary 1800 stationary 200 administrative expense 2000 selling expense: promotion 100 breakeven point is in 25th month. 6 Value Chain 7 Primary activity: Design: Our business is unique design centric.

This design will be collected from designers and also individual customer can design it. When we get the design or customer choose it we’ll precede to next level. Manufacture product: Basically our T-shirts will be printed from our press then the t shirt will be ready to sell. This T-shirt will be collected from wholesale market with different quality. T shirt quality will be given to our web site. Our customers will choose the fabric and thus we prepare it. Delivery: Delivery point will vary based on customers chosen destination.

There will be a common destination for every customer then further discussion can be discussed through cell phone. And delivery price will be added with the product price. Provide after sales service: Our brand will be famous for its after sales service. We’ll keep contact to each customer who once bought from our online store to give him/her superior customer service. Our company star wear provides different types of services like discount facility, many designers design at a lower price and so on. 8 Identify customers: Identifying customer is the most important job for a business.

For our business we may have potential customers. Our target customers are young generation. Through web catalogue revenue model and other social network we will spread the business offers and products Purchase materials and suppliers: we’ll collect T-shirts from wholesale shop and also a bulk amount so that out cost can be minimized. Market and sell: Our market place is digital. So our web site will be very customer centric to attract customers. Supporting activity: Finance and Administration: Costing and revenues will be covered by these departments.

The purchase amount, selling price, administration expense, break even amount and duration everything will be monitored by Finance department. 9 Marketing and Human Resource Management: This department is also very important to support the selling process because it will help to ease with customers, different offers like promotion offers segmentation, positioning, targeting will be done by this department. Technology development and communication: Technology development department will work with technical terms like virtual reality of the product and so on. An online clothing store designed as a Web

application requires flexible manipulation, fast transmission and efficient storage of the display content. In particular, dealing with a relatively huge database of garments and the simulation of complex graphical objects, such as skin and the cloth, the most critical limitation is perhaps the real-time performance constraint. When the simulation of garment movement is performed using physics based model, due to the impossibility to achieve the real-time performance, simulation results are prerecorded in order to display the animated garment at an interactive rate. 10 Organ gram: CEO:

Chief Executive Officer’s main responsibilities are making strategy. How our Online T-shirt Store can develop that will be CEO’S duty. The CEO is delegated by the board, when it is established as a body, to have full administrative and representational powers. In the context of this authority, the CEO is in charge of all the Company’s departments, directs their operation, makes the necessary decisions in the framework set out by the applicable legislation, the Articles of Association, the regulations governing the Company’s function, the approved projects and budgets, as well as board decisions.

11 CFO: Chief Finance Officer (CFO) is Chief Financial Officer. They direct a company’s financial goals, objectives, and budgets. They oversee the investment of funds and manage associated risks, supervise cash management activities, execute capital-raising strategies to support a firm’s expansion, and deal with mergers and acquisitions. CMO: The chief marketing officer has responsibility for all areas of marketing, including sales, customer experience, public policy, media relations, promotion, web and electronic services and the corporate programs of a

company or foundation. Revenue model In business, revenue typically consists of the total amount of money received by the company for goods sold or services provided during a certain time period. Therefore, revenue models are a part of the business model. Many online companies generate revenues from multiple income streams such as advertising, subscription, affiliate marketing etc. Online models not only sell goods or services but also contacts (e. g. banner) and information (e. g. user-data). Five primary revenue models are described below.

Since there are possibilities of multiple variations, many companies do not use one single revenue model. They combine for example subscription fees with advertising and/or sales 12 We will start with web catalog revenue model: Web Catalogue Revenue Model Our goal of an e-business can be to reduce cost or improve customer service,That can help to select our product like our T-shirt however, the primary aim of our e-commerce sites is to generate revenue and earn profit. This is the most simple and common type of e-business model for generating revenue that we want.

This model would use electronic catalogue and shopping cart providing access to our customers throughout the dhaka. We using this type of a model to sell our T-shirt by telephone. This revenue is often called the or catalog model. Our potential customer can order by our telephone . After few years later if our website attract more customer we wil use Advertising-Supported Revenue Model In this model service/information that we will provide free of any charge to certain our customer and the advertising revenue will sufficient to support the operation of the business and its cost.

We do not any charge of our potential customer. To know our product like T-shirt we will provide useful information to our site. To attract our potential customer we will highly focus to our product. For example, Yahoo portal provides useful information and a search engine free of cost, but earns revenue through advertisements on its portal web site to bear the operational cost. 13 If needed we will aslo use Advertising-Subscription Mixed Revenue Mo Advertising-Subscription Mixed Revenue Model In this level, Our subscribers pay a fee and accept some level of advertising.

And we want earn its revenue from both the sources, that is, through subscription and advertisements. On our site that use this model, normally, the subscribers are subjected to much less advertising than they are on advertising supported sites. , our potential customer has to pay subscription fee for certain services/information whereas some services are free of charge as they are supported by advertising Logo: The dictionary meaning of a logo is a symbol, sign, or emblem. Human beings have used such symbols throughout time to convey a succinct message.

In present times, logos tend to be graphical in nature, designed for easy recognition of an organization. It is a tool to build an identity for the organization, as part of its trademark or brand, and to generate favourable thoughts and feelings about the organization. A logo can be one of the finest investments of your company. It acts as visual representative of your company. Logo does public relations without exerting an effort through verbal communication. This only means that a powerfully designed logo can be easily understood by many people and and persuade them through its appearance.

Moreover, the logo should have the power to speak to the audience, captivate their heart, build trust, and make a long lasting impression on their minds. Nobody can ever overlook a stunning logo design. A company’s existence without a logo is just like a human without a face. Hence, having an attractive company logo is the basic key element in the success of any organization and its web site. 14 We will use logo for many reason: Logo can project good impression The first thing that potential customers can see from your company is your logo.

Making a good first impression on your clients gets you on a good start toward winning your business. Gaining customer’s trust is through logo. Logo can be a good selling pitch for the company. logos are design patterns which are created according to the business they represent. Every company has these small business logos. A computer company might have a small computer logo, entertainment commerce has their own logo design and beside these there are thousands of business sectors that make use of business logo. Business logos can be considered as the visualization illustration of the business.

Logo creates an identity for a company A great custom logo design can create a personality for your business that customers can easily identify and relate to. An excellently designed logo will remain on the minds of various people. You will only know that the logo has a great impact to the viewers if the company is recognized and identified without even mentioning its name. It makes the company look larger Smart branding with the right logo design can give potential customers the impression that you are a big and well-established company, something that they can really trust.

15 logos can either set businesses apart from their competitors or leave consumers confused about what the owners are selling. Allusive logos present a challenge because their connection to a company is only symbolic. Therefore, it takes more effort to make the connection in the customers’ minds between the logo and the company’s products and services. Logo shows professionalism In a lighter side, the concept of professionalism is by giving your customers total satisfaction. Show to your customers that you are after with their happiness.

A professional company is stable, reliable, and serious about the way it conducts business. A great custom logo design can build consumers’ confidence in your products and services. Logo important for company because there is a chance that our design can be copyed. we will use logo to protect our design. that is the main pupose of logo in our business. A logo represents the company on various public and corporate sectors. Business Logos are very important aspect of the business industry as these logos gives the visual representation of the company and is actively use in marketing and advertising campaign.

A well designed and eye-catching business logo is very necessary to attract the clients and make a professional image of the business in the market. It has been proven by the advertising campaigns of several businesses that only those industries have succeeded in their marketing strategies that have use effective logos, brochure and banners to represent their production. logo is given much importance in any business company. Well known graphic designers are hired by the associations to design the business logo and after several alteration and modification the final logo is selected.

The reason why logos are given such importance is because these logos are incorporated in all the business activities. Whether its business cards, brochure, online web pages, advertising and promotion or other business dealings the logos are always use to represent the business on each and every platform of business dealings. 16 Instructions 1. Open accounts on social media sites to communicate about your T-shirt company. Offer existing customers coupon discounts when they sign up to follow your social media accounts.

Learn search functionality in your accounts to join special interest networks, or find and follow users with common interests. For example, depending on your T-shirt themes, you may find potential customers by looking through categories in your account such as fashion, sports, or even food or gardening. You can also find target customers by using features such as key word, and hash tag searches. Hold your followers’ attention by sharing meaningful content about your T-shirts as opposed to blatant sales pitches. 2. Pay for Internet advertising on websites that focus on your T-shirt themes.

If your budget permits, experiment with placing a banner advertisement on selected websites. Contact website owners for quotes on their advertising rates. Experiment with different ad placements to determine which yield the most sales, before you make an ongoing commitment to pay for ad space on a website. 3. Contact fashion bloggers and ask them to do written or video reviews of your company in return for free T-shirts. Look for bloggers who write about your types of T-shirts through blog directories such as the Fashion Industry Network, or Signature 9.

You can also find bloggers of interest by reading “top blogs” posts, on blogs such as Fashion Indie. Follow links on one blog of interest to find other bloggers. Ask reviewers to grade your company in specific areas, such as the shopping cart checkout process, shipping times and shirt quality. Positive blogger reviews can lead to customer referrals. Give all of your customers the same high quality service to encourage them to spread the word about your company. 17 4. Join special interest groups in your community to network with customers.

Don’t overlook the demand for T-shirts in your own community. Some customers may prefer to support local businesses. The advantage for local buyers can include speedy T-shirt delivery. Contact local boutique owners about carrying some of your shirts in their stores, to attract customers who don’t generally shop online. 5. Donate T-shirts to community events to build name recognition for your shore. Send a press release to editors at local publications, and ask them to write a feature article about your company. Link media mentions of your company to your website to build a buzz about your business.

18 Benefits of T-Shirt Screen Printing Better print quality. Generally speaking, experts say the ability of the ink to bond to the material of the shirt in the screen printing process results in a more durable and clear image than with DTG. Versatility. Screen printing generally works just as well on other apparel, such as hats, bags and jackets, as with T-shirts. Cheaper with big orders. There is generally a setup fees charged for screen printing to prepare the screens needed for the different colors in the shirt.

However, the larger the order the less expensive the cost of screen printing. So far very large orders, you can usually save money relying on screen printing. Disadvantages of T-Shirt Screen Printing More expensive with smaller orders. If you only want a dozen or fewer shirts, the additional cost to prepare the screens and ink for screen printing is usually more expensive than digital printing. It’s common for T-Shirt screen printing companies to charge a fee to prepare the screens and ink for the order. More equipment needed to startup.

There is a lot of equipment needed for screen printing, including the inks, the screens, emulsion fluids and the T-shirts or whatever canvas will be used. Not as good with photo reproductions. Most experts say that DTG is the better process for reproducing photos because the digital reproduction is usually more like the original photo than the labor-intensive process involved with screen printing. 19 Conclusion Online retail sales have boomed as more people get high-speed internet connections and time-pressed shoppers take advantage of shopping from home or work, according to industry observers.

Shopping on the net is expected to see high sales. Marketing an online T-shirt business can be a challenge. firm have to Find a good source of cheap but quality T-shirts for screen printing (see Resources). Consider various materials such as cotton, linen, and other garment textiles when shopping for T-shirts. Also, decide whether or not you’ll offer embroidery and other types of applications. The key to starting your own T shirt company and actually to selling T shirts online is to have a catchy design on them.

This doesn’t mean you need to be an artist, but being witty and a little bit creative is a good start. People love snarky, humorous t shirts; so if you have a good sense of humor, see what kind of slogans you can come up with. Graphic tees are also a good bet, if you are artistic or if you know someone you can buy designs from. You can also use your own photography skills to take pictures of animals and flowers, or find these types of pictures online that are public domain to use and sell. 20 References http://www. elf-design.

com/article-Visual-Vocabulary. html http://www. google. com/#hl=en&tbo=d&sclient=psy-ab&q=logo+advantage%28Tshirt%29&oq=logo+advantage%28Tshirt%29&gs_l=hp. 3… 12174. 32786. 9. 32925. 10. 9. 0. 1. 1. 1. 3253. 16689. 8-2j5. 7. 0. les%3B.. 0. 0… 1c. 1. vV1P7ujRABw&pbx=1&bav=on. 2,or. r_gc. r_pw. r_qf. &bvm=bv. 1355534169,d. bmk&fp=ec38cd3ac9fc6a62&bpcl=40096503&biw=1366&bih=591 http://iferi. com/ www. ecplaza. net How to Market Your Online T-shirt Company | eHow. com http://www. ehow. com/how_2163078_market-online-tshirt-company. html#ixzz2FKQAOTKW

Discuss two personal factors and two external factors that could influence a child or young person’s development

A2. A personal factor that may influence a Childs development would be being born with or later developing a brain tumour. Brain tumours can often lead to epilepsy, speech and communication difficulties, and even physical disabilities. A child that has epilepsy can be affected emotionally through embarrassment caused by having a seizure and the effects the seizure has on the child’s body i.e. They may lose control of their bladder. A night time seizure makes it difficult for the child to pay attention during lessons the next day, due to fatigue. An absent seizure (looking vacant/day dreaming) may disrupt their ability to process and remember information temporary. This can lead to difficulties with their reading, writing and maths. The child may get frustrated and annoyed as anything learned just prior to an absent seizure has to be repeated, due to short term memory loss. Other affects;

Anti-seizure medications also may cause problems with mental processing and can cause fatigue or hyperactivity, especially when trying to get the dosage right for the child’s needs. Children who can appear to be seizure-free may be experiencing epileptic discharges in the brain (epilepsy type waves occurring when there is no physical sign of a seizure). However a child may show signs by being restless, distracted easily, and not being able to focus on the task at hand. Behavioural disturbances: – Fear, stress, embarrassment, frustration and even outbursts of anger. Having a buddy system in place and peer support may help build low self esteem. Being consistent and using clear direct instruction, repetition and praise and encouragement all helps.

Another personal factor is asthma which is a chronic illness that can start in infancy. It can affect a child’s physical development they may not grow as tall as their peers due to having to take their preventative inhaler that contains steroids. Also having frequent time away from school can impede on their social skills as well as falling behind on lessons. An asthma attack can be brief or it can last for several days. An attack can be very scary and exhausting. Although asthma is not curable, it can be controlled by taking medication and by avoiding contact with environmental “triggers” for asthma. Triggers that can induce an asthma attack are;

allergens (substances to which people are allergic), such as pollens, foods, dust, mould, or animal dander irritants in the air, such as dirt, cigarette smoke, gases and air pollution odours in the household, such as household cleaners, perfumes, paints, varnishes, fabric softeners, laundry detergents and cooking fumes respiratory infections, such as colds, and flu exercise
Emotional stress such as excessive fear or excitement  weather conditions – very cold, windy or sudden changes in the weather medications, such as aspirin or certain cough medicines

This illness can cause behavioural and emotional effects in a child. They could experience lower self esteem due to not taking a part in sport activities, fear of trying for fear of an asthma attack. This can then have an impact on peer relationships, not being able to share fully in reached goals, or share in group camaraderie. Loneliness can occur possibly even depression.

External Factor The external factors, which surround the child as opposed to being of the child can influence the child’s development in different ways, for example, the family environment can be a huge influence on the child’s development. A break-up of the parents can be massively disruptive for children, this may cause them to become withdrawn, or lose interest in school and education. Loss of focus and inability to concentrate, outbursts of emotion, lack of sleep. Not being able to cope emotionally because of all the changes at home. i.e. Home routine disrupted arguments, loss of one parent in the household can cause grief, insecurity, fear, anger, self blame. Not being able to express their feelings verbally. Which can lead to unpredictable behaviour, isolating themselves from people, having angry outbursts, and even self harming? All can affect a child in areas of their development especially socially, emotional, communication and even intellectually.

Another external factor is poverty and deprivation, lack of food will cause lethargy and inability to concentrate at school. It may affect the child’s growth and health. Low self esteem due to not having the latest fashion in clothes, ill fitting clothes, bullying due to the way they look. Not having books, the latest gadgets and games etc will impede on their fine motor skills and hand eye co-ordination especially in their early years. Socially older children may make the wrong choices and even turn to crime to get what they don’t have. There may be low expectations due to their parents being uneducated or not being good role models.

Veneration Without Understanding: Analysis

Dr. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda, our national hero who is known for his nationalism and patriotism usually come side by side with these words; the doctor, the writer, the philosopher, the clairvoyant, and most of all the hero who died for the country. More than a hundred and fifty years ago, that hero was born and history says that he was the one who revolutionized a new uprising. Not through the literal bloody and violent revolutionary way but by unravelling the skeletons in the colonizers closet through his works and writings.

Though he died in the hands of the colonizers, he fought the bloodless way and sparked the spirit of nationalism of the Filipino as an individual. Renato Constantino’s essay, “Veneration without Understanding” is not one those articles about Dr. Rizal which we typically see in our grade school history books. It is a much more intricate analysis behind the life of Rizal and his being a hero, the factors that made him condemn the idea of the revolution, his recognition and all the angles we don’t usually see and read around history books which turned to be neglected over time.

He also discussed how Rizal viewed the words ”liberty” and “independence” differently, the concept of Filipino nationhood and how Rizal influenced the recognition of the Filipino race and elevated the term “Indios”. Shrouded with the mantel of sainthood and perfection, we all see Rizal as one of the best role models that we have. We look up to him and see him as the praiseworthy hero who died for the country’s freedom. It’s alarming how the previous generations including ours are blinded with all the information necessary to judge whether he is fit of all these acknowledgement that is being showered upon him.

After all, he is still a human being vulnerable to selfish mistakes and wrong decisions. I agree with what the author said that our vision has been narrowed or worse, blinded by the adoration of the greatness of the said hero and how he became a martyr and died for our country in the hands of the enemy. But in my opinion, contrary to what most has to say, Constantino is not against Rizal. He is trying to show us how important it is to search deeper and investigate the defining characteristics of Rizal’ heroism and make us see the important details which we tend to overlook most of the time.

Reading his essay made me think about what really makes a hero. Is it his martyrdom and how he died for the country? Or is it the way he stood up against the colonizers? Another angle that the author tries to tackle is the question whether Rizal was really sponsored by the Americans to become our national hero. Quoting an article from the essay, Constantino stated, ”History cannot deny his patriotism. He was a martyr to oppression, obscurantism and bigotry. His dramatic death captured the imagination of our people.

Still, we must accept the fact that his formal designation as our national hero, his elevation to his present eminence so far above all our other heroes was abetted and encouraged by the Americans. ” It seems plausible that Rizal was really favored by the Americans and gave him the status but this does not change the fact that he was the most important movement in Philippines’ journey towards freedom. We can never deny that he was the one who sparked the revolution and gave the Filipinos a sense of unity and identity.

Also, as the part of today’s youth, I can say that he is a great role model even though he condemned the idea of the revolution. I still give him the credit on innovating revolution. Seeing Rizal as a model does not mean that we should follow every step he has made in the past. This simply means that there are many paths in arriving towards the goal we seek just like Rizal who found a bloodless way in informing our brothers and sisters about the hell they been forced to live in. Now, society has come to an era where oppression is not as evident as it used to be.

This calls for an evolution of heroism within us. In order for this evolution to take place, we should rediscover the heroes from then and now and see them as human who stood up in the moment of desolation and gave their people the hope that they need. We should examine not only their strengths but also their weaknesses in order to learn their way correctly. Just like how the author Renato Constantino approached his study with our great and famous national hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal.

What does Nursing mean to me?

It is important to me that nursing is identified as an honorable and essential profession. I believe that nursing is a status that reflects the two equally important parts of nursing knowledge: Empirical knowledge and Esthetical knowledge. “It is the artful nurse’s interactions that can bridge the gap introduced by technology and science, thereby creating integrity and engagement rather than detachment in the personal encounter” (Johnson, 1994). Even when I am not at work, I sub-consciously carry that status with me all the time; and am ready to demonstrate it. For example, at a family gathering, if someone asks me a health-related question, I not only provide the scientific answer and explanation in simple language, but will also give him or her health teaching related to that question in a caring, compassionate way. I can relate carrying this status with me just like how celebrities carry the glamorous status with them all the time and, how they are always ready to face the camera. Therefore, for me, nursing is a status that can only be maintained by the right combination of science and art.

It is important to me that nursing is identified as an honorable and essential profession. I believe that nursing is a status that reflects the two equally important parts of nursing knowledge: Empirical knowledge and Esthetical knowledge. “It is the artful nurse’s interactions that can bridge the gap introduced by technology and science, thereby creating integrity and engagement rather than detachment in the personal encounter” (Johnson, 1994). Even when I am not at work, I sub-consciously carry that status with me all the time; and am ready to demonstrate it. For example, at a family gathering, if someone asks me a health-related question, I not only provide the scientific answer and explanation in simple language, but will also give him or her health teaching related to that question in a caring, compassionate way. I can relate carrying this status with me just like how celebrities carry the glamorous status with them all the time and, how they are always ready to face the camera. Therefore, for me, nursing is a status that can only be maintained by the right combination of science and art.

Cody, W. (1994). A dialectical examination of nursing art. In J. Johnson (Author), Philosophical and theoretical perspectives for advanced nursing practice (5th ed., p. 172). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

?Role of different Agency in my Socialization

Socialization is a term used to refer to the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs and ideologies, providing an individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within his or her own society. Socialization is thus ‘the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained. ’Socialization helps me learn to function successfully in my social worlds. How does the process of socialization occur? How do we learn to use the objects of our society’s material culture?

How do we come to adopt the beliefs, values, and norms that represent its nonmaterial culture? This learning takes place through interaction with various agents of socialization, like peer groups and families, plus both formal and informal social institutions. In each stage of my life there are influences or agents of socialization who have an impact on my socialization and the messages of socialization being received. As I develop and advance in psychosocial development, the agents become stronger or weaker in their capacity for influence.

Early in my development, the family is, of course, the strongest agent, but I advances to preschool age, programs or schools begin to exert influence. At school age, peers are active socialization agents. For the first eight years, family, school, community, and peers play a role in the following aspects of a child’s socialization: The development of trust The development of independence The tendency to take initiative The sense of competence and ambition Decisions about who one is Relationships with others Decisions about future generations

Reflections on one’s life Social groups often provide the first experiences of socialization. Families, and later peer groups, communicate expectations and reinforce norms. People first learn to use the tangible objects of material culture in these settings, as well as being introduced to the beliefs and values of society. Family: The family is the most important primary group in the society. It is the simplest but most elementary form of the society. The meaning of the family can be explained better by the following definitions. M. F.

Nimkoff says that “Family is a more or less durable association of husband and wife with or without child, or of a man or women alone with children. ” Burgess and Locke says that “Family is a group of persons united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption constituting a single household interacting and intercommunicating with each other in their respective social roles of husband and wife, father and mother, son and daughter” Family is the first agent of socialization. Mothers and fathers, siblings and grandparents, plus members of an extended family, all teach me what I need to know.

For example, they show me how to use objects (such as clothes, computers, eating utensils, books, bikes); how to relate to others (some as “family,” others as “friends,” still others as “strangers” or “teachers” or “neighbors”); and how the world works (what is “real” and what is “imagined”). As you are aware, either from your own experience as a child or your role in helping to raise one, socialization involves teaching and learning about an unending array of objects and ideas. It is important to keep in mind, however, that families do not socialize us in a vacuum.

Many social factors impact how a family raises its children. For example, we can use sociological imagination to recognize that individual behaviors are affected by the historical period in which they take place. Sixty years ago, it would not have been considered especially strict for a father to hit his son with a wooden spoon or a belt if he misbehaved, but today that same action might be considered child abuse. Sociologists recognize that race, social class, religion, and other societal factors play an important role in socialization.

For example, poor families usually emphasize obedience and conformity when raising their children, while wealthy families emphasize judgment and creativity (National Opinion Research Center 2008). This may be because working-class parents have less education and more repetitive-task jobs for which the ability to follow rules and to conform helps. Wealthy parents tend to have better educations and often work in managerial positions or in careers that require creative problem solving, so they teach their children behaviors that would be beneficial in these positions.

This means that children are effectively socialized and raised to take the types of jobs that their parents already have, thus reproducing the class system (Kohn 1977). Likewise, children are socialized to abide by gender norms, perceptions of race, and class-related behaviors. In Sweden, for instance, stay-at-home fathers are an accepted part of the social landscape. A government policy provides subsidized time off work—480 days for families with newborns—with the option of the paid leave being shared between both mothers and fathers.

As one stay-at-home dad says, being home to take care of his baby son “is a real fatherly thing to do. I think that’s very masculine” (Associated Press 2011). School: Most Bangladeshi children spend about seven hours a day, 180 days a year, in school, which makes it hard to deny the importance school has on our socialization. We are not only in school to study math, reading, science, and other subjects—the manifest function of this system. Schools also serve a latent function in society by socializing children into behaviors like teamwork, following a schedule, and using textbooks.

School and classroom rituals, led by teachers serving as role models and leaders, regularly reinforce what society expects from children. Sociologists describe this aspect of schools as the hidden curriculum, the informal teaching done by schools. For example, in the Bangladesh, schools have built a sense of competition into the way grades are awarded and the way teachers evaluate students. When children participate in a relay race or a math contest, they learn that there are winners and losers in society. When children are required to work together on a project, they practice teamwork with other people in cooperative situations.

The hidden curriculum prepares children for the adult world. Children learn how to deal with bureaucracy, rules, expectations, waiting their turn, and sitting still for hours during the day. Schools in different cultures socialize children differently in order to prepare them to function well in those cultures. The latent functions of teamwork and dealing with bureaucracy are features of American culture. Schools also socialize children by teaching them about citizenship and national pride. In the United States, children are taught to say the Pledge of Allegiance.

Most districts require classes about U. S. history and geography. As academic understanding of history evolves, textbooks in the United States have been scrutinized and revised to update attitudes toward other cultures as well as perspectives on historical events; thus, children are socialized to a different national or world history than earlier textbooks may have done. For example, information about the mistreatment of African Americans and Native American Indians more accurately reflects those events than in textbooks of the past.

Peer group: A peer group is made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests. Peer group socialization begins in the earliest years, such as when I was kids on a playground teach younger children the norms about taking turns or the rules of a game or how to shoot a basket. As I grow into teenagers, this process continues. Peer groups are important to adolescents in a new way, as they begin to develop an identity separate from their parents and exert independence.

Additionally, peer groups provide their own opportunities for socialization since kids usually engage in different types of activities with their peers than they do with their families. Peer groups provide adolescents’ first major socialization experience outside the realm of their families. Interestingly, studies have shown that although friendships rank high in adolescents’ priorities, this is balanced by parental influence. Religion: While some religions may tend toward being an informal institution, this section focuses on practices related to formal institutions.

Religion is an important avenue of socialization for many people. The United States is full of synagogues, temples, churches, mosques, and similar religious communities where people gather to worship and learn. Like other institutions, these places teach participants how to interact with the religion’s material culture (like a mezuzah, a prayer rug, or a communion wafer). For some people, important ceremonies related to family structure—like marriage and birth—are connected to religious celebrations. Many of these institutions uphold gender norms and contribute to their enforcement through socialization.

From ceremonial rites of passage that reinforce the family unit, to power dynamics which reinforce gender roles, religion fosters a shared set of socialized values that are passed on through society. Mass media: Mass media refers to the distribution of impersonal information to a wide audience, such as what happens via television, newspapers, radio, and the Internet. With the average person spending over four hours a day in front of the TV (and children averaging even more screen time), media greatly influences social norms (Roberts, Foehr, and Rideout 2005).

I learn about objects of material culture (like new technology and transportation options), as well as nonmaterial culture—what is true (beliefs), what is important (values), and what is expected (norms). Community: Large social network that families can use as a support system is called community. It can consist of people who live in the same town, area, or even neighborhood Include a group of people who share the same values or interests such as religion, sports, etc.

The community’s purpose in the socialization process Children’s first interactions with the local community is where community can help develop my identity (self-concept) and how I fit into the group setting (group identity). I can learn self- control, social skills and values of society when they are in these community based programs. Community Institutions School After school child care programs Churches Libraries Parks Support services offered by local agencies Example: hospitals, police, fire departments, etc.

BG the Tiger, Boys and Girls Club Mascot Religion and churches are vital institutions the communities. They serve various functions in the community. It can range from helping the homeless, to charity events, and going on field trips. This is a good way for children to meet other children in their faith, and become active leaders in their community. Development and Socialization Children in community are exposed to many other children and learn the skills to play and be friends with them. They are also exposed to children from other cultures, ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds.

It’s important for children to have interaction with each other by playing, doing art projects and other various activities; which they will learn to socialize better instead of staying home where their social interaction with other people is limited. All in all, community as socialization agent is a great way for children to interact with the community, find friends who also love the same activities as them, and most of all, learning about themselves and the social roles. If there weren’t any community programs or after school programs in the year 2008 then the lives of children and their family would

be very difficult. During this fast moving, flourishing time in the U. S. history we depend on the community programs and schools to help take care of our children. As for the saying, “It takes a village (community) to raise a child,” it means that we all need to take a part in help raising not only our children, but our neighbor’s children because they are our future and we need to help the children become positive adults. Law: Law is one of the important agencies in my socialization.

MYexperiences in interactions with police and other legal actors subtly shape their perceptions of the relation between individuals and society. These experiences influence the development of adolescents’ notions about law, rules, and agreements among members of society, and about the legitimacy of authority to deal fairly with citizens who violate society’s rules. It is likely that these beliefs influence compliance with the law, both among adolescents in general and among juvenile offenders in particular, after they have been sanctioned for their offenses.

Because one focus of the Network’s activity is on understanding influences on patterns of desistance or re-offending, we are concerned about youths’ understanding of and participation in legal processes that express societal norms, their assessments of the fairness of the process, and their views of the legitimacy of the law and the institutions that enforce it. Legal socialization, the process through which individuals acquire attitudes and beliefs about the law, has received only scant attention from those interested in adolescent development. It includes both affective components (e. g.

, the extent to which one feels fairly treated by representatives of the legal system, sometimes referred to as “procedural justice”) and substantive components (e. g. , one’s actual beliefs about the legitimacy and fairness of the law). Legal socialization is critical in shaping adolescents’ perceptions of the law, rules, and agreements among members of society, as well as the legitimacy of authority to deal fairly with citizens who violate society’s rules. Because the enforcement of law differs by neighborhood, children and adolescents growing up in neighborhoods of different social composition experience the law in very different ways.

This Network project is a pilot study that assesses variation in legal socialization as a function of adolescents’ neighborhood contexts. The study will measure differences by neighborhood in: (1) the development of adolescents’ notions about the law; (2) their understanding of and participation in legal processes that express societal norms; (3) their assessments of the fairness of the process; and (4) their views of the legitimacy of the law and the institutions that enforce it. The specific aims of this pilot study are:

• to identify and measure interactions of children and adolescents with law and legal actors, estimate differences in these interactions by neighborhood, gender, race and age; • to describe developmental trajectories of legal socialization by neighborhood, gender, race and age; • to assess influence of interactions with legal actors on legal socialization, assess mediating effects of neighborhood, family, and individual factors; and • to develop methods and measures for a longitudinal study of legal socialization of adolescents. Arts and literature:

Perceptions and attitudes directly influence our interpretation of literature and are formed as a product of our socialization. We all carry a unique package of knowledge, memories, hopes and dreams. This knapsack acts as more than a depository of experiences; it also serves as a foundation for our perspectives. Motivational speaker and author Stephen Covey said: “We are not human beings on a spiritual journey. We are spiritual beings on a human journey. ” Literature has the power to direct this journey, to open roads that might not be traveled, and perhaps to change one’s path.

In the process of socialization the literature has the power to ignite the imagination, express beliefs in a way that may not be heard otherwise, and form impressions. Like as, the poem, “Banalota Sen” of Jibonanondo Das, makes us to see how a lady could posses the natural beauty in its actual mean. Literature can unlock a door to new cultures and ideas, expose peoples of all different backgrounds to imaginary or actual situations, and make the impossible become real thus helps people on socialization. Role Model: A role model is a person whose behavior, example, or success is or can be

emulated by others, especially by younger people. The term “role model” is credited to sociologist Robert K. Merton, who coined the phrase during his career. Merton hypothesized that individuals compare themselves with reference groups of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires. A person’s chosen role models may have a considerable impact on their socialization. People try to act, behave and even try to lead their life according to their role model. In fact, the role model has a big impact on choosing their career.

Drug use cause and effect

You hear about more and more people using drugs these days, particularly prescription drugs. Doctors may prescribe these drugs to you and you may think they are helping but, what you don’t know is how they may change a normal functioning person into an addict. These drugs are habit forming and can seriously harm you, even kill you. For Years people go to the doctor for one reason or another. Some doctors prescribe pills that can sometimes be more damaging than helpful. Certain drugs these doctors prescribe like pain killers only mask the problem, not really solving it. Some names of these painkillers are: Vicodin, Lortab, Anexsia, Zydone, and Norco. After several weeks of taking these drugs, you can become physically and emotionally dependent. Even if you have never been an addict or used street drugs before you can become dependent. After a prolonged period, say a few weeks, of taking these drugs, not only are you dependent but, if you do not continue to ingest these pills you will experience withdrawal symptoms.

Some of these withdrawal symptoms include: insomnia, night sweats, tremors and agitation. Studies have shown prolonged use or misuse of these painkillers can have other dangerous consequences. Dangers of these drugs include: liver disease related to prolonged or excessive use of the acetaminophen (contained in Vicodin). Physical tolerance to the drug after prolonged use, increased doses is needed to achieve the same pain relief. People tend to forget or do not read the interaction warnings or labels on these drugs. Mixing certain types of other drugs with painkillers can be extremely dangerous and end in a bad result. Drugs like MAO inhibitors and antidepressants can result in respiratory complications or death.

Digital personalization in product and service offerings

Abstract The advent of the internet has created an opportunity for sellers to compete using internet-based mechanisms by either hiding or revealing market information. Too much information in the hands of the consumer means sellers lose some leverage and less of information means lower customer trust and loyalty. Research however has shown that digital personalisation is able to tailor information to fit the needs of customers. This paper aims to review various literatures on digital personalisation and internet-based selling mechanisms and how the personalisation of these mechanisms could influence and persuade customer interest.

Introduction The lives of people and their style of living have been very well influenced in recent years by the Internet which has created an Electronic Commerce (EC) platform for companies and their partners to conduct business and perform electronic transactions (Zhang, 2005). The editor-in-chief of International Journal of Electronic commerce which is the leading scholarly journal on Electronic Commerce defined E-commerce as “sharing business information, maintaining business relationships and conducting business transactions by means of telecommunications networks” (Zwass , 1996).

Through E-commerce, companies are able to reduce constraints such as time of delivery of products and information, space required for storing products and cost of doing business which together enhances their ability to connect and to interact with their E-commerce customers and partners. To take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity and draw from its benefits many organisations are competing within the ecosystem E-Commerce (Bowen, 2000).

To be able to attract and retain customers, companies who are involved in electronic commerce have had to make use of differentiation methods and personalisation technologies to make their offerings unique and to tailor these offerings to meet specific preferences of their customers. According to (Wind and Rangaswamy, 2000), personalization enables businesses to research on the behaviours of customers so as to develop suitable strategies for marketing and to deliver the appropriate product or service to the intended targeted customer.

(Wind and Rangaswamy, 2000) further found that out of the many existing benefits of electronic commerce, perhaps the most vital component is it’s the ability to give consumers a flexible and personalised relationship. The advent of internet based selling, has also increased transparency in markets therefore benefiting customers greatly as they are now more able to discern properly the product or service that best satisfies their needs and at a price they deem fit(Granados and Gupta et al. , 2008).

In contemporary website building, owners present the users with the option of creating their own page within the website, an example being ‘My Banking Page’ , whose benefits is not only limited to the feeling of ownership but also gives the user the opportunity to interact in ways which he deems comfortable and suitable (Deitel and Deitel et al. , 2001). The search engine site called “Excite” offers “My Excite Start Page” which enables the user to select the content and style shown at their page when they log in.

Amazon is also able to recommend CDs or DVDs to a user based on their history of book purchases (Rayport and Jaworski, 2001). This paper provides an in-depth literature review to show how through Electronic Commerce, businesses are able to digitally personalise their offerings to target a certain consumer base and also how internet based selling mechanisms help to influence customers. The paper is structured in two sections. The first section of this article is organised to explain the definition and effect of digital personalisation.

The second section will provide facts on internet based system designs and how certain selling mechanisms such us pricing are personalised to influence customers. Questions to be discussed will include: ? ? How do online technologies impact information available to consumers? What strategies do firms use through internet-based selling to influence consumers? Digital Personalisation – Product and Service Offerings Phillips (2003) defines digital personalisation as “using artificial intelligence to find patterns in customers’ choices or demographics and to deduce projections from them”.

A good example of this is Amazon. com’s personalised book and music recommendations. Amazon is able to keep record of the buying patterns of its web-site visitors and then the next time the customer revisits, Amazon is able to recommend similar or related products to the customer. This is quite a good selling pitch to customers who are cash-rich and yet time-poor and yet most customers are still unsure about this sales push (Nunes and Kamil, 2001). A study done by (Yang and Yen et al.

, 2000) showed that information available on the internet doubled every 18 months from 1997 and the number of home pages continues to increase at an even faster rate. Users of the internet are therefore facing the problem of information overload when trying to retrieve information. This fact has therefore given rise to the search by users of the web to find more intelligent ways to conduct information filtering and gathering from the massive web files (Li and Zhong, 2004).

Digital personalisation therefore enables a company to create a one-to-one relationship with its customers by studying the customer’s choice patterns. In relation to products and services, the needs, tastes, preferences and interests of people differ and could evolve with time. Consequently, digital personalisation is a marketing strategy within the electronic commerce environment proposed to provide that one-to-one relationship between the organisation and its customer (Allen and Kania et al. , 1998).

To dive further into digital personalisation in products and service offering it is important to understand the difference between and website that has been personalised and one that is non-personalised. Digital Personalisation Methods used within Product/Service Offerings Various web experts have identified different approaches to digital personalisation in product and service offerings and according to (Krulwich and Burkey, 1996), the two main types or approaches to personalisation are Prescriptive Personalisation and Adaptive Personalisation.

Prescriptive personalisation relates to the type of personalisation which is activated by the site’s interaction with the user. Understanding the user could emanate from the customer’s profile, clicking behaviour, customer activity and history, the customer’s interests & preferences, what site the customer came from (Search engine or facebook), time of day and even the season(Wyer and Srull, 2013). With prescriptive personalisation, a customer’s interaction with the website triggers a change to the usual static display of products and services to match the user’s activity.

This type of personalisation is usually referred to as segmentation as visitors to the website are often broken down into segments to make targeting easier. Prescriptive personalisation can be divided further into Explicit and Implicit personalisation. Adaptive personalisation is an advancement of prescriptive personalisation (Patel, 2003). Unlike the prescriptive personalisation which makes use of the user’s previous data to determine what content to show, adaptive personalisation goes further to observe real-time behaviour of the user on the site.

“Baynote is a leading provider of personalized customer experience solutions for multi-channel retailers” Baynote (2013). Baynote is able to look for implicit patterns using an affinity engine and collective intelligence to analyse live data (Macmanus, 2013). Figure 1 shows an image example of what Baynote’s technology is able to accomplish. Cameras are split into categories and subcategories. This adaptive personalisation technology creates a category for canon cameras and a sub-category for expensive canon cameras within that category. Figure 1: Baynotes’ recommendation technology. Source: (Macmanus, 2013).

The technology for adaptive personalisation models the ‘user’ by analysing their behaviour and then the system uses this new found knowledge to personalise and display the content automatically while the user is still live of the website (Basu and Hirsh et al. , 1998). This personalisation approach also predicts the experience as expected by the user before and during the interaction. Contrary to the prescriptive type where segments are created, the adaptive type applies a self-managed set of business rules that evolves continuously as the customer evolves and as the customer’s patterns change.

Online systems design –Mechanisms for customer influence and persuasion The effect of the internet revolution on the ability of companies to compete for consumers using market information cannot be overemphasized (Kahn and Strong et al. , 2002). Cost to consumers for searching for information has reduced and consumers now have the option of choosing between multiple purchasing channels and products (Granados and Gupta et al. , 2008). Companies are also progressively able to use online technologies to hide, reveal, distort or accurately present market information to their advantage.

Before the introduction of the internet, a firm’s competitive strength was mostly based on its product offerings and price. Now however, firms are able to design and implement strategic selling mechanisms which tend to influence transparency within the market and information accessibility within the market. (Zhou and Dresner et al. , 2008) asserts that increases in market transparency created by the internet are beneficial to consumers because it gives them the opportunity to better discern the product that is more suitable to them at a better price.

He further believes that the internet gives companies the flexibility to personalise information for their various consumers using their selling mechanisms. Market transparency as defined by (Granados and Gupta et al. , 2008) is the level at which information about products and market prices are available and accessible. Market transparency reduces the level of doubt in the minds of the consumer and acts as a means of influencing them to either make a purchase or develop a relationship with the company.

Ebay which is a very successful online retailer base its strategy on providing consumers with a market where they can access and compare information to enable them make a suitable purchase. Blue Nile, an online store which sells jewelry, increased sales from $14 million in 1999 to $72 million in 2004 by publishing content which educated male consumers on how to buy and engagement ring (Acohido, 2003). As shown in figure 2, customers who are new to the diamond market will be keen to visit this site to at least get an understanding of the product they seek. Figure 2: How to choose a diamond at Blue Nile online.

Source: (Bluenile. com, 2013) Market transparency can be categorized in terms of the type of information revealed. The information type to be focused on in this report will be price and product information which are both heavy consumer influencing tools and how they can be personalised to appeal to specific customer targets. Price transparency This relates to the availability of information on market prices such as historic prices, quotes and discount offers that may help both the buyer and the seller determine the price they are willing to trade at (Elliott and Speck, 2005).

(Hahn and Kauffman, 2002) suggests that consumers knowing too much about the market price may be disadvantageous to firms as more information about price could increase consumer price sensitivity leading to a downward price pressure due to the customers been aware of lower alternative prices. There are trade-offs to the price transparency mechanism because while it could attract more buyers, the seller could also lose out due to the well informed consumer (Granados and Gupta et al. , 2008). This trade-off threat to businesses could however be neutralised through personalised pricing.

The office of fair trading OFT(2013), describes personalised pricing as “ the practice where businesses may use information that is observed, volunteered, inferred, or collected about individuals’ conduct or characteristics, to set different prices to different consumers (whether on an individual or group basis), based on what the business thinks they are willing to pay”. Personalised pricing could lead to some consumers being offered discounts while others pay higher prices than they would have if the price set was the same for all consumers.

The personalisation technology discussed earlier on page 4 makes this pricing mechanism possible. Through price transparency, information is made available to customers about market prices and by the customer’s clicking pattern or behaviour businesses are able to collect data to understand the needs of the customer in other to tailor content, product and price to meet their expectation. The ability to personalise pricing enables businesses to practice more accurately: ? ? ? Search Discrimination, where the same product is priced differently to different buyers (Mikians and Gyarmati et al.

, 2012). Example is where Alan and Satya are interested in buying the same phone from the same online store. By profiling them, the seller offers different prices to Alan and Satya knowing from his profile that he has visited many other competitor stores and so might be more sensitive to price than Alan. Targeted Discounting, where previous shopping habits tend to generate vouchers and discounts. A test run by Wall Street Journal indicated that shoppers, who arrive on a site through a link at a price comparison site, consistently get lower product prices (Soltani and Valentino-Devries, 2013).

Most sellers who use the targeted discounting mechanism seem to specifically target bargain hunters even when the buyer no longer interested in that particular offer. Dynamic Pricing, where fluctuation in price occurs due to the product demand and availability. This means that sellers have the flexibility to suddenly change product prices by tracking such factors as demand forecasts and competitors’ prices and then displaying the new prices using electronic labels (Thomson, 2013). Europe’s largest retailer of home improvement products ‘Kingfisher’ already uses the dynamic pricing system.

Using the mechanism means that if the demand for a product increases for example when the queen of England wears a “Reiss” dress, the retailer using dynamic pricing could immediately increase the price of the product. Product transparency According to (Johnson and Levin, 1985) a decrease in the cost of searching for information relating to a product reduces price sensitivity of consumers, strengthens their relationship with a website and also increases their retention. Product transparency refers to the availability of product information.

Johnson and Levin found that the absence of product information arouses the suspicion of the consumer against that product. Buyers have different need, tastes and preference and so would be more willing to return to a website which provides the necessary information about a product to enable the buyer to make a purchasing decision (Lewis and Sappington, 1994). Interface is the largest maker of carpet tile in the world and boasts of been able to reveal their complete product life cycle information for customers to review and compare with their competitors (Interfaceflor.

co. uk, 2013). Conclusion This literature review suggests that consumers are more likely to visit an internet-based selling site if the site owners provide them with not just any information but the needed information. Sellers are able to do this by been product and price transparent which will then pull customers to the site and then using personalisation software technologies, companies can collect customer data in other to tailor their offerings to meet the specific needs of customers.

Different companies apply market transparency mechanisms differently, while some reveal enough accurate information to capture the interest of its audience others use technology to conceal information to lure in its target audience (Granados and Gupta et al. , 2006). Major online companies like Amazon and Walmart use digital personalisation to recommend products for customers based on their shopping pattern or behaviour which in effect reduces the time spent by customers on finding some products.

While internet-based selling provides companies with the flexibility of tailoring the information that can be given to consumers, the system design of the price transparency and product transparency aspect are not exactly independent (Shaw, 2003). For instance, in a situation where a company’s system design offers multiple products information, consumers would want to see the matching price to facilitate the decision to purchase.

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