Category Archives: New Essays

Enjoy Cooking

From ancient times till the 21st century cooking was basically a survival skill. And now, the division of cooking is marked into two main categories. The first one is “normal cuisine” which means home cooking, and the other one is “elegant cuisine”, which is cooking conceived like an art form. The major difference between the two branches is that one form should be considered as practical cooking while the other is more like cooking with a view to demonstrating skills As for international students, cooking promises to help feed ourselves healthily and delightedly.

As a student who never went to cooking school, I’ve been enthralled with certain cookbooks from my childhood, immersing myself from cover to cover and appreciating all kinds of cuisines around the world. From Kung-Pao chicken, braised pork to flour dusted, chocolate smudged; from knife skills to splitting cake layers, setting a table, and making tamales, all these are really impressive in my mind. Believe it or not. It was such an amazing and useful experience for international students to learn about, even superficially, various types of cooking that they can manage to eat healthily and enjoy themselves at every corner of the world.

At least I do not need to force myself to be adaptive to those raw meats, since I know how to make my meal featured of low fat and high protein. When our life is in a rut and we just want to get out of it, enjoy cooking would definitely be my first choice. Some people may claim that cooking is just boring and laborious. I bet that they are the ones who are out of kitchen. The very fun of learning to cook, at least it seems so to me, is getting into the kitchen and seeing what new flavor combinations you can create. My eating pleasure really took a flying leap though when I figured out how to add flavor without sugar or salt.

I like eggplants, soy sauce, and garlic together. What you may find it a little weird, but it is all yours. Surely, you are either going to mess something up or create a meal that is just not quite right, but Rome wasn’t built in a day. What is really interesting is the process of cooking; sooner or later you are going to love it. On top of that, we’re in love with our microwaves and convenience (convenient) foods. The quicker dinner can be served, the quicker we can get back to more important things, like stay up all night for the quiz tomorrow, or spending a whole week to prepare for an interview.

Sometimes, simplicity and the basics are what work best. As I mentioned above, I will tear through some chips and salsa. But I still stick to cook in person. Pick a few smart vices like dark chocolate, good beer or wine, ice cream, and add some pepper to make things enjoyable throughout my life. Frankly, life is too short to give up everything, but by being good 90% of the time, you’ll find that the other 10% doesn’t really hurt you and is far more interesting.

Advanced Placement United States History

Advanced Placement United States History Course Description: AP® U. S. History is a challenging course that is meant to be the equivalent of a freshman college course and can earn students college credit. It is a two-semester survey of American history from the age of exploration and discovery to the present. Solid reading and writing skills, along with a willingness to devote considerable time to homework and study, are necessary to succeed.

Emphasis is placed on critical and evaluative thinking skills, essay writing, interpretation of original documents, and historiography. Course Objectives Students will: • master a broad body of historical knowledge • demonstrate an understanding of historical chronology • use historical data to support an argument or position • differentiate between historiographical schools of thought • examine how political institutions, social and cultural developments, diplomacy, and economic trends are interweaved throughout history interpret and apply data from original documents, including cartoons, graphs, letters, etc. • effectively use analytical skills of evaluation, cause and effect, compare and contrast • work effectively with others to produce products and solve problems • prepare for and successfully pass the AP U. S. History Exam Historical Themes: In addition to the course objectives listed above, the course will emphasize a series of key themes throughout the year.

The themes will include discussions of American diversity, the development of a unique American identity, the evolution of American culture, demographic changes over the course of America’s history, economic trends and transformations, environmental issues, the development of political institutions and the components of citizenship, social reform movements, the role of religion in the making of the United States and its impact in a multicultural society, the history of slavery and its legacies in this hemisphere, war and diplomacy, and finally, the place of the United States in an increasingly global arena.

The course will trace these themes throughout the year, emphasizing the ways in which they are interconnected and examining the ways in which each helps to shape the changes over time that are so important to understanding United States history. Course Texts : Primary Texts: John J. Newman and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination (New York: Amsco School Publications, 2004). David M. Kennedy, Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey. The American Pageant: A History of the Republic (Boston: McDougal Littell/Houghton Mifflin, 2005).

Supplementary Texts: Yad Vashem. Echoes and Reflections: A Multimedia Curriculum on the Holocaust (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2005). Frederick M. Binder and David M. Reimers. The Way We Lived: Essays and Documents in American Social History. 4th edition, Volume I: 1492-1877 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000). Frederick M. Binder and David M. Reimers. The Way We Lived: Essays and Documents in American Social History. 4th edition, Volume II: 1865-Present (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000). Diane Ravitch. The American Reader: Words That Moved a Nation. New York: Harper Perennial/Harper Collins, 1991). Larry Madaras and James M. SoRelle. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in American History. 10th edition, Volume I: The Colonial Period to Reconstruction. (Connecticut: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2003). Larry Madaras and James M. SoRelle. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in American History. 10th edition, Volume II: Reconstruction to the Present. (Connecticut: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2003). Julie A. Schumacher, et al. A House Divided: America’s Civil War. (Iowa: Perfection Learning Company, 2000).

Upton Sinclair. The Jungle. (New York: Bantam Books, 1981). Joseph J. Ellis. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. (New York: Random House, Inc. , 2000). James W. Loewen. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995). Michael Oesterreicher. Pioneer Family: Life on Florida’s Twentieth-Century Frontier. (Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1996). Document Based Questions in American History. (Illinois: The DBQ Project, 2002). Luther Spoehr and Alan Fraker.

Doing the DBQ: Advanced Placement U. S. History Exam: Teaching and Learning with the Document-Based Question. (College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service, 1995). Bert Bower et al. History ALIVE! (California: Teachers’ Curriculum Institute, 1999). The Way We Saw It. (Wisconsin: Highsmith, Inc. , 2000). Grading Policy: A: 100-90, B: 89-80, C: 79-70, D: 69-60, F: 59-0 Course Assignments: Assignments will be graded using a point system. Unit exams, quizzes, and projects will be worth more points than homework or classwork assignments.

In addition, students will be graded on class participation for some activities. Students will receive a rubric for Free-Response and Document-Based Questions based on the Advanced Placement grading scale. Classes will be a combination of lecture, group work, and answering student questions. For each unit of knowledge, students will be required to write an analytical paper, using the 9-point AP scale, and answer AP-formatted multiple-choice questions in the exact times allotted on the AP exam. Students will be required to keep a notebook of all returned assignments and handouts.

In April, students will revise their analytical papers that are written throughout the year as a part of the review session to improve their writing skills and knowledge of each historical period. Course Outline: First Semester Unit 1: Founding the New Nation 1. Pre-Columbian Societies • Early inhabitants of the Americas • American Indian empires in Mesoamerica, the Southwest, and the Mississippi Valley • American Indian cultures of North America at the time of European contact 2. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492-1690 • First European contacts with Native Americans Spain’s empire in North America • French colonization of Canada • English settlement of New England, the Mid-Atlantic region, and the South • From servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region • Religious diversity in the American colonies • Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon’s Rebellion, Glorious Revolution, and Pueblo Revolt 3. Colonial North America, 1690-1754 • Population growth and immigration • Transatlantic trade and growth of seaports • 18th century back country • Growth of plantation economies and slave societies • The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening Colonial governments and imperial policy in British North America 4. The American Revolutionary Era, 1754-1789 • The French and Indian War • The Imperial Crisis and resistance to Britain • The War for Independence • State Constitutions and the Articles of Confederation • The federal Constitution Corresponding Texts: American Pageant: Ch. 1-8; APUSH Prep: Ch. 1-5 Possible DBQs: • Doing the DBQ: Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference in development occur? History Unfolding: Daily Life in Colonial America • History Unfolding: The Witches of Salem • History Unfolding: Colonial America in the 18th Century • 2004 Exam: In what ways did the French and Indian War (1754-63) alter the political, economics, and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies? Use the years 1740-1766. • History Unfolding: The American Revolution • 1999 Exam: To what extent had the colonists developed a sense of their identity and unity as Americans by the eve of the Revolution? 1750-1776. • 2005 Exam: To what extent did the American Revolution change American society?

In your answer be sure to address political, social, and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775-1800. Possible FRQs: • “With the dawn of the 16th century, there came together in Europe both the motivation and the means to explore and colonize territory across the seas. ” Assess the validity of this statement with respect to a) religion, b) trade, and c) technology. • In what ways did the English colonies develop differently from the Spanish and the French colonies? • Compare the English relationship and the French relationship with the Native Americans. “From the beginning, the English colonies had democratic characteristics. ” Assess the validity of this statement with reference to majority rule and representative government in Virginia and Massachusetts. • How did geographic features determine the lives of the colonists in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies? • How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between 1607 and 1775? • To what extent did mercantilism affect the political and economic development of England’s 13 American colonies? Compare William Penn’s goals as Pennsylvania’s founder with James Oglethorpe’s goals as one of Georgia’s founders. • Comment on the extent to which each of the following contributed to a more democratic society in the American colonies a) the Great Awakening, b) immigration, c) the Zenger case. • Beginning in 1763, colonists faced a series of conflicts that led to the break with Great Britain. Discuss these crises, stressing the role of each in the growth of the independence movement. • Contrast the background of these two groups of Americans: those who became Loyalists and those who became Patriots. Compare the Articles of Confederation to the U. S. Constitution including the Bill of Rights. Unit 2: Building the New Nation 1. The Early Republic, 1789-1815 • Washington, Hamilton, and shaping of the national government • Emergence of political parties: Federalists and Republicans • Republican Motherhood and education for women • Beginnings of the Second Great Awakening • Significance of Jefferson’s presidency • Expansion into the trans-Appalachian west; American Indian resistance • Growth of slavery and free Black communities • War of 1812 and its consequences 2.

Transformation of the Economy and Society in Antebellum American • Transportation revolution and creation of a national market economy • Beginnings of Industrialization and changes in social and class structures • Immigration and nativists reaction • Planters yeoman farmers and slaves in the cotton South 3. Transformation of Politics in Antebellum America • Emergence of the second party system • Federal authority and its opponents: judicial federalism, the Bank War, tariff controversy, and states’ rights debates • Jacksonian democracy and its successes and limitations . Religion, Reform, and Renaissance in Antebellum America • Evangelical Protestant revivalism • Social reforms • Ideas of domesticity • Transcendentalism and utopian communities • American renaissance: literary and artistic expressions Corresponding Texts: American Pageant: Ch. 9-15; APUSH Prep: Ch. 6-8 Possible DBQs: • History Unfolding: “A Republic, If You Can Keep It” • History Unfolding: The Journey of Lewis and Clark • 1998 Exam: … To what extent was this characterization of the two parties accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison? 2002 Exam: Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 the “Era of Good Feelings. ” Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of nationalism and sectionalism with reference to the years 1815-1825. • History Unfolding: Manifest Destiny-Images of an American Idea • Doing the DBQ: Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as the guardians of the U. S. Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. In light of the following documents and your knowledge of the 1820s-1840s, to what extent do you agree with the Jacksonians’ view of themselves? 2002 Exam: “Reform movements in the United States sought to expand democratic ideals. ” Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to the years 1825-1850. Possible FRQs: • “America’s first foreign policy, formulated by presidents Washington and Adams, had as its primary goal the avoidance of war at all cost. ” Assess the validity of this statement in terms of three of the following: Citizen Genet controversy, Jay Treaty, Proclamation of Neutrality, or the XYZ Affair. • Did we become an independent country in 1776, 1787, or 1790? • Compare Hamilton and Madison’s political views and personalities. “The early part of the 19th century was marked by strong pressures to force Native Americans from their lands along the western frontier of the United States. ” Assess the validity of this statement with reference to three of the following: Andrew Jackson, Tecumseh, the Lewis and Clark expedition, or William Henry Harrison. • Jefferson called his election as president the “Revolution of 1800. ” Assess the impact of this revolution on domestic and foreign affairs. • In what ways did the Marshall Court tip the scales in favor of the national government’s supremacy over the states? The Jacksonian period (1824-1848) has been celebrated as the era of the “common man. ” To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider the following: economic development, politics, and reform movements. • In what ways did the concept of Manifest Destiny affect the foreign and domestic policies of the United States in the years 1840-1850? • Compare the cult of domesticity with the goals of the Seneca Falls Convention. • In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820-1860? “In the early 19th century, there was widespread discrimination in the United States against people who were different from the white Protestant majority. ” Assess the validity of this statement with reference to: free African Americans, Native Americans, and Irish and German immigrants. • Explain how the Mexican-American War increased tensions both politically and socially between the North and South over the issue of slavery. • Explain how three of the following influenced the development of the last West from the 1850s-1900. Miners, cattlemen, farmers, immigrants, or cities. Unit 3: Testing the New Nation . Territorial Expansion and Manifest Destiny • Forced removal of Native Americans to the trans-Mississippi West • Western migration and cultural interactions • Territorial acquisitions • Early U. S. imperialism: the Mexican War 2. The Crisis of the Union • Pro-and antislavery arguments and conflicts • Compromise of 1850 and popular sovereignty • Kansas-Nebraska Act and the emergence of the Republican Party • Abraham Lincoln, the election of 1860, and secession 3. The Civil War • Two societies at war: mobilization, resources, and internal dissent • Military strategies and foreign diplomacy Emancipation and the role of African Americans in the war • Social, political, and economic effects of war in the North, South, and West 4. Reconstruction • Presidential and Radical Reconstruction • Southern state governments: aspirations, achievements, failures • Role of African Americans in politics, education, and the economy • Comprise of 1877 • Impact of Reconstruction Corresponding Texts: American Pageant: Ch. 16-22; APUSH Prep: Ch. 9-15 Possible DBQs: • Doing the DBQ: To what extent did the natural environment shape the development of the West beyond the Mississippi and the lives of those who lived and settled there?

How important were other factors. Use your knowledge of the time period 1840s-1890s. • History Unfolding: From Jackson to Lincoln- The Emergence of a Democratic Nation • History Unfolding: The Abolitionist Movement • History Unfolding: The Civil War • Prep Book: Reform movements, westward expansion, and states’ rights forced the United States to face the issue of slavery. Evaluate the relative importance of each influence as a cause of the Civil War with reference from 1850-1861. • 2005 Exam: In the early 19th century, Americans sought to resolve their political disputes through compromise, yet by 1860 this no longer seemed possible.

Analyze the reasons for this change with reference to the years 1820-1860. Possible FRQs: • “The North had won the Civil War before it began. ” Assess the validity of this statement with respect to specific military, economic, and political factors during the years 1848-1860. • To what extent is it correct to say that the Civil War represented a second American Revolution? • Of the following causes of the breakup of the Union in 1860-1861, which three do you consider most important? Explain your reasoning. Weak presidential leadership Breakup of the Democratic Party Passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act Decision in the Dred Scott case

Fanaticism on the slavery issue • Compare the goals and strategies of the Lincoln, Johnson, and congressional plans of Reconstruction. • Analyze the reasons for the failure of congressional Reconstruction to achieve lasting civil rights for the freemen and women. Unit 4: Forging an Industrial Society 1. The Origins of the New South • Reconfiguration of Southern agriculture: sharecropping and crop lien system • Expansion of manufacturing and industrialization • Politics of segregation: Jim Crow and disfranchisement 2. Development of the West in the Late 19th Century • Expansion and the development of western railroads Competitors for the West: miners, ranchers, homesteaders, and American Indians • Government policy toward American Indians • Gender, race, and ethnicity in the far West • Environmental impacts of western settlement 3. Industrial America in the Late 19th Century • Corporate consolidation of industry • Effects of technological developments on the worker and the workplace • Labor and unions • National politics and influence of corporate power • Migration and immigration: the changing face of the nation • Proponents and opponents of the new order, e. g. , Social Darwinism and Social Gospel 4. Urban Society in the Late 19th Century Urbanization and the lure of the city • City problems and machine politics • Intellectual and cultural movements and popular entertainment Corresponding Texts: American Pageant: Ch. 23-27; APUSH Prep: Ch. 16-19 Possible DBQs: • History Unfolding: The Industrial Revolution in the Early Republic • History Unfolding: Lowell- The Factory Comes to America • History Unfolding: The Irish in America- The Great Famine and the Great Migration • History Unfolding: “A Complete Emancipation”- The Birth of the Women’s Rights Movement • Prep Book: The rise of corporations transformed the United States in the late 19th century.

Discuss the changes and determine if the transformations were for the better considering the years 1880-1900. • Flag book: “The politics of the Gilded Age failed to deal with the critical social and economic issues of the times. ” Assess the validity of this statement with reference to the years 1865-1900. Possible FRQs: • Discuss how industrialization changed businesses and labor in the United States from 1865-1900. • Compare the goals, methods, and achievements of the National Labor Union, the Knights of Labor, and the American Federation of Labor. How did the characteristics and experiences of the “new” immigrants of the 1880-1914 time period compare to those of the “old” immigrants who came before them? • Explain how three of the following factors changed American cities between 1865-1900. Architecture Government Immigration Popular culture Transportation Course Outline: Second Semester Unit 5: Struggling for Justice at Home and Abroad 1. Populism and Progressivism Agrarian discontent and political issues of the late 19th century • Origins of Progressive reform: municipal, state, and national • Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson as Progressive presidents • Women’s roles: family, workplace, education, politics, and reform • Black America: urban migration and civil rights initiatives 2. The Emergence of America as a World Power • American imperialism: political and economic expansion • War in Europe and American neutrality • The First World War at home and aboard • Treaty of Versailles • Society and economy in the postwar years 3. The New Era: 1920s The business of America and the consumer economy • Republican politics: Haring, Coolidge, and Hoover • The culture of Modernism: science, the arts, and entertainment • Responses to Modernism: religious fundamentalism, nativism, and Prohibition • The ongoing struggle for equality: African American and Women 4. The Great Depression and the New Deal • Causes of the Great Depression • The Hoover administration’s response • Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal • Labor and union recognition • The New Deal coalition and its critics from the Rights and the Left • Surviving hard times: American society during the Great Depression . The Second World War • The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and Germany • Prelude to war: policy of neutrality • The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war • Fighting a multifront war • Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences • U. S. as a global power in the Atomic Age 6. The Home Front during the War • Wartime mobilization of the economy • Urban migration and demographic changes • Women, work, and family during the war • Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime • War and regional development Expansion of government power Corresponding Texts: American Pageant: Ch. 28-36; APUSH Prep: Ch. 20-25 Possible DBQs: • Flag book (end): To what extent were the reform efforts of the Progressive Era aimed at maintaining the existing society and to what extent did they bring about radical changes? • Doing the DBQ: Populism • Doing the DBQ: Expansionism • 2000 Exam: How successful was organized labor in improving the position of workers in the period from 8175-1900? Analyze the factors that contributed to the level of success achieved. • Flag book: “The ideals used to justify U. S. nvolvement in WWI disguised the real reasons for Wilson’s change in policy from neutrality to war and, in fact, violated the traditional values of the American nation. ” Assess the reasons for the change in U. S. policy in 1917, and whether the reasons were consistent with traditional American values. • 1997 Exam: To what extent did political and economic developments as well as assumptions about the nature of women affect the position of American women during the period 1890-1925? • 2003 Exam: Evaluate the effectiveness of Progressive Era reformers and the federal government in bringing about reform at the national level.

In your answer be sure to analyze the successes and limitations of these efforts in the period 1900-1920. • Doing the DBQ: The 1920s- Traditions v. Modernism • 2003 Exam: FDR and the New Deal • 2004 Exam: How and for what reasons did United States foreign policy change between 1920 and 1941? Possible FRQs: • Compare Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom approach to regulation with Theodore Roosevelt’s New Nationalism approach. • Progressives believed that greater democracy was the key to solving society’s problems.

Identify three problems that Progressives addressed and, for each, describe a democratic reform that was designed to deal with the problem. • Compare Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois regarding their objectives and methods. • Assess the importance of three of the following in the U. S. decision to declare war against Spain in 1898. Yellow journalism Sinking of the Maine U. S. business interests Naval strategists The Cuban revolution • Explain the impact of U. S. involvement in World War I on three of the following: African Americans, women, civil liberties, labor unions, and business. Describe and account for the rise of nativism in American society from 1900-1930. • Analyze the role of three of the following in explaining the Great Depression: farm problems, income distribution, world trade and finance, government policy, and the stock market. • Select three New Deal agencies or commissions and assess how well each satisfied the three R’s of relief, recovery, and reform. • In what ways did economic conditions and developments in the arts and entertainment help create the reputation of the 1920s as the Roaring Twenties? • “A different U. S. foreign policy in the 1930s could have prevented the outbreak of World War II. Assess the validity of this statement by a) summarizing U. S. policy toward Asia and Europe and b) evaluating the extent to which that policy was either effective or ineffective in preserving peace. • “President Roosevelt recognized the dangers of fascism early and did all that he could, under the circumstances, to lead the nation away from a policy of isolationism. ” Assess the validity of this statement by analyzing three of the following: U. S. response to the Panay incident, Munich agreement, cash and carry, quarantine speech, or destroyers-for-bases deal. “Discrimination continued during World War II despite the patriotism of all groups of Americans. ” Assess this statement with reference to three of the following: African Americans, Japanese Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, or women. Unit 6: Making of Modern America 1. The United States in the Early Cold War • Origins of the Cold War • Truman and containment • Cold War in Asia: China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan • Diplomatic strategies and policies of the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations • Red Scare and McCarthyism • Impact of Cold War on American society 2. The 1950s Emergence of the modern civil rights movement • Affluent society and “the other America” • Consensus and conformity: suburbia and middle-class America • Social critics, non-conformists, and cultural rebels • Impact of changes in science, technology, and medicine 3. The Turbulent 1960s • From the New Frontier to the Great Society • Expanding movements for civil rights • Cold War confrontations: Asia, Latin America, and Europe • Beginnings of Detente • Antiwar movement and counterculture 4. Politics and Economics at the End of the 20th Century • Election of 1968 and “the Silent Majority” Nixon’s challenges: Vietnam, China, Watergate • Changes in the American economy: energy crisis, deindustrialization, and the service economy • New Right and Reagan revolution • End of the Cold War 5. Society and Culture at the End of the 20th Century • Demographic changes: surge of immigration after 1965, Sunbelt migration, graying of America • Revolutions in biotechnology, mass communications, and computers • Politics in a multicultural society 6. U. S. in the Post-Cold War World • Globalization and the American economy • Unilateralism vs. multilateralism in foreign policy • Domestic and foreign terrorism Environment issues in the global context Corresponding Texts: American Pageant: Ch. 37-42; APUSH Prep: Ch. 26-30 Possible DBQs: • 2001 Exam: What were the Cold War fears of the American people in the aftermath of WWII? How successfully did the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower address these fears? Use the documents and your knowledge of the years 1948-1961 to construct your response. • Flag book: “President Johnson’s policy in Vietnam was doomed to fail for both political and military reasons. ” To what extent is this assessment of Johnson’s policy supported by the historical evidence? 1995 Exam: Analyze the changes that occurred during the 1960s in the goals, strategies, and support of the movement for African American civil rights. • UCF Seminar: Compare the different presidential foreign policies toward Vietnam and discuss the reaction of America society toward these policies with reference to 1954-1975. Possible FRQs: • In what ways did the early years of the Cold War (1946-1952) affect American political, economic, and social life? In your analysis, comment on three of the following: liberalism v. conservatism, civil liberties, size of the government, U. S. nvolvement in world affairs, and economic prosperity. • “The Cold War hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union was inevitable. ” Assess the validity of this statement. • Which policies, the New Deal or the Fair Deal, had the greatest impact on domestic policies in American History? • “The chief impetus for the civil rights movement came from African Americans, not from elected officials. ” Assess the validity of this statement by analyzing three of the following: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Montgomery bus boycott, Little Rock crises, sit-ins, or Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960. To what extent did television affect American culture and politics in the 1950s? • “Even though Lyndon B. Johnson was not a greatly admired as President Kennedy, he was a more effective leader than Kennedy in domestic affairs. ” Assess the validity of this statement. • Compare President Johnson’s policy in Vietnam with the policies of Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy. • Explain how three of the following contributed to the social revolutions of the 1960s: New Left, civil rights movement, counterculture, women’s movement, or war in Vietnam. Discuss, with respect to three of the following, the view that the 1960s represented a period of profound cultural change: education, gender roles, music, or race relations. • Why did the antiwar movement gain more support as time went on? • What were the abuses in the Watergate scandal and Nixon’s decisions on Vietnam, and what impact did those issues have on domestic politics in the 1970s? • Evaluate whether or not Jimmy Carter’s foreign policy was a success, using four of the following in your analysis: human rights policy, Panama Canal Treaty, Camp David Accords, Iranian revolution, or SALT II Treaty. “Between 1960 and 1975, there was great progress in the struggle for political and social equality. ” Assess the validity of this statement with respect to two of the following groups during that period: African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, or women. • How did U. S. involvement in the Middle East in the 1970s affect American society? • Evaluate the effects of the Reagan administration on politics and economics during the 1980s.

Wal Mart Case Study..Management

WAL-MART’S SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WAL-MART’S SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES “When you start to collapse the supply chain, accuracy in execution becomes critical. Any lack of accurate information and processes creates costly bottlenecks in the flow of goods and materials. ” — Bruce Richmond, Global head, Andersen Consulting. INTRODUCTION The US-based Wal-Mart ranked first in the global Fortune 500 list in the financial year 2001-02 earning revenues of $219. 81 billion (Refer Table I). Wal-Mart was the largest retailing company in the world.

The company was much bigger than its competitors in the US – Sears Roebuck, KMart, JC Penney and Nordstrom combined (Refer Exhibit I). In 2002, Wal-Mart operated more than 3,500 discount stores, Sam’s Clubs and Supercenters in the US and more than 1,170 stores in all major countries across the world. The company also sold products on the Internet through its website, walmart. com. TABLE I GLOBAL FORTUNE 500 LIST (2002) Rank 1 2 3 4 5 Company Wal-Mart Stores Exxon Mobil General Motors Ford Motor Enron Revenues (in $ millions) 219,812. 0 191,581. 0 177,260. 0 162,412. 0 138,718. Source: www. fortune. com Wal-Mart was one of the largest private sector employers in the world, with employee strength of approximately 1. 28 million. The company’s founder, Sam Walton (Walton) had always focused on improving sales, constantly reducing costs, adopting efficient distribution and logistics management systems and using innovative information technology (IT) tools. According to analysts, Wal-Mart was able to achieve a leadership status ((Refer Exhibit II)) in the retail industry because of its efficient supply chain management practices. Captain Vernon L.

Beatty, aide-de-camp to the commander, Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Ohio said, “Supply chain management is moving the right items to the right customer at the right time by the most efficient means. No one does that better than Wal-Mart. ” Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices BACKGROUND NOTE Walton was born in 1918 at Kingfisher, Oklahoma, US. After graduating from the University of Missouri in 1940, Walton worked for the famous retailer, J C Penney. In his first job, Walton had displayed the qualities of a good salesman. He realized the importance of building loyalty among customers as well as employees.

In the mid 1940s, Walton gave up his job and decided to set up his own retail store. He purchased a store franchise from Ben Franklin in Newport, Arkansas. It was here that he learnt his first lessons in retailing – offering significant discounts on product prices to expand volumes and increase overall profits. The business was successful and Walton soon acquired a second store within three years. Walton not only looked for opportunities to open stores in other small towns but also explored the possibility of introducing innovative practices such as self-service.

As the need for people to manage his stores increased, Walton tried to attract talented and experienced people from other stores. By 1969, Walton had established 18 Wal-Mart stores, reporting an annual sale of $44 million. In mid 1970s, Wal-Mart acquired 16 Mohr-Value stores in Michigan and Illinois. By the late 1970s, the retail chain had established a pharmacy, an auto service center, and several jewellery divisions. In the 1980s, Wal-Mart continued to grow rapidly due to the huge customer demand in small towns, where most of its stores were located.

Commenting on the growth of Wal-Mart, Walton said: “When we arrived in these small towns offering low prices every day, customer satisfaction guaranteed, and hours that were realistic for the way people wanted to shop, we passed right by that old variety store competition, with its 45 percent mark ups, limited selection and limited hours. ” Wal-Mart stores were located at a convenient place in a big warehouse-type building and targeted customers who bought merchandise in bulk. Customers could buy goods at wholesale prices by becoming members and paying a nominal membership fee.

By 1984, there were 640 Wal-Mart stores in the US, generating sales of about $4. 5 bn and accruing profit of over $200 mn. Wal-Mart suffered a setback in 1992, when Walton died after a prolonged illness. But it continued its impressive growth in the 1990s, focusing more on establishing its stores overseas. In 1992, Wal-Mart expanded its operations in Mexico by entering into a joint venture with Cifra. Two years later, the company acquired 122 Woolco stores from Woolworth, Canada. By 1997, Wal-Mart had become the largest volume discount retailer in Canada and Mexico.

In 1997, Wal-Mart acquired the 21-store German hypermarket chain, Wertkauf. Other international expansion efforts included the purchase of Brazilian retailer Lojas Americans’ 40 percent interest in their joint venture, and the acquisition of four stores and additional sites in South Korea from Korea Makro. In January 1999, Wal-Mart expanded its German operations by buying 74 stores of the hypermarket chain, Interspar. The stores were acquired from Spar Handels AG, which owned multiple retail formats and wholesale operations throughout Germany. By 2002, Wal-Mart had emerged as the largest company in the world in terms of revenues.

Analysts felt that Wal-Mart had come a long way since 1979, when the company generated annual revenues of more than a billion dollar for the first time. By 1993, the company was doing a billion dollar business in a week and by 2001, it was crossing the billion dollar mark in every 1. 5 days. Analysts attributed this phenomenal growth to Wal-Mart’s continued focus on customer needs and reducing costs through efficient supply chain management practices. The company was able to offer a vast range of products at the lowest costs in the shortest possible time.

This was possible mainly due to two factors – Wal-Mart’s highly automated distribution centers, which significantly reduced shipping costs and time, and its computerized inventory system, which speeded up the checking out time and recording of transactions. 3 Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices MANAGING THE SUPPLY CHAIN PROCUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION Wal-Mart always emphasized the need to reduce its purchasing costs and offer the best price to its customers. The company procured goods directly from manufacturers, bypassing all intermediaries.

Wal-Mart was a tough negotiator on prices and finalized a purchase deal only when it was fully confident that the products being bought were not available elsewhere at a lower price. According to Claude Harris, one of the earliest employees, “Every buyer has to be tough. That is the job. I always told the buyers: ‘You are negotiating for your customer. And your customer deserves the best prices that you can get. Don’t ever feel sorry for a vendor. He always knows what he can sell, and we want his bottom price. ‘We would tell the vendors,’ Don’t leave in any room for a kickback because we don’t do it here.

And we don’t want your advertising program or delivery program. Our truck will pick it up at your warehouse. Now what is your best price? ” Wal-Mart spent a significant amount of time meeting vendors and understanding their cost structure. By making the process transparent, the retailer could be certain that the manufacturers were doing their best to cut down costs. Once satisfied, Wal-Mart believed in establishing a longterm relationship with the vendor. In its attempt to drive hard bargains, Wal-Mart did not even spare big manufacturers like Procter & Gamble (P&G).

However, the company, generally, preferred local and regional vendors and suppliers. In 1998, Wal-Mart had over 40 distribution centers located at different geographical locations in the US. Over 80,000 items were stocked in these centers. Wal-Mart’s own warehouses directly supplied 85 percent of the inventory, as compared to 50-65 percent for competitors. According to rough estimates, Wal-Mart was able to provide replenishments within two days (on an average) against at least five days for competitors. Shipping costs for Wal-Mart worked out to be roughly 3 percent as against 5 percent for competitors.

Each distribution center was divided into different sections on the basis of the quantity of goods received and was managed the same way for both cases and palletized goods. The inventory turnover rate was very high, about once every two weeks for most of the items. Goods meant for distribution within the US usually arrived in pallets, while imported goods arrived in re-usable boxes or cases. In some cases, suppliers delivered goods such as automotive and drug products directly to the stores. About 85% of the goods which were available at the stores passed through the distribution centers.

The distribution centers ensured a steady and consistent flow of products to support the supply function. As Wal-Mart used sophisticated barcode technology and hand-held computer systems, managing the center became easier and more economical. Every employee had an access to realtime information regarding the inventory levels of all the products in the center. They had to just make two scans – one to identify the pallet, and the other to identify the location from where the stock had to be picked up. Different barcodes were used to label different products, shelves and bins in a center.

The hand-held computer guided an employee with regard to the location of a particular product from a particular bin or shelf in the center. When the computer verified the bin and picked up a product, the employee confirmed whether it was the right product or not. The quantity of the product required from the center was entered into the hand-held computer by the employee and then the computer updated the information on the main server. The hand-held computer also enabled the packaging department to get accurate information about the products to be packed.

It displayed all information about the storage, packaging and shipping of a particular product thus, saving time on unnecessary paperwork. It also enabled the center 4 Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices supervisors to monitor their employees closely enabling them to give directions and even guide them even on the move. This enabled the company to satisfy customer needs quickly and improve the level of efficiency of the distribution center management operations. Each distribution center had facilities for maintaining personal hygiene such as shower bath and fitness centers.

It also had provision for food, sleep and personal business. The distribution center could also be used for meetings and paperwork. The truck drivers of Wal-Mart sometimes availed these facilities. LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT An important feature of Wal-Mart’s logistics infrastructure was its fast and responsive transportation system. The distribution centers were serviced by more than 3,500 company owned trucks. These dedicated truck fleets allowed the company to ship goods from the distribution centers to the stores within two days and replenish the store shelves twice a week.

The truck fleet was the visible link between the stores and distribution centers. Wal-Mart believed that it needed drivers who were committed and dedicated to customer service. The company hired only experienced drivers who had driven more than 300,000 accident-free miles, with no major traffic violation. Wal-Mart truck drivers generally moved the merchandise-loaded trailers from Wal-Mart distribution centers to the retail stores serviced by each distribution center. These retail stores were considered as customers by the distribution centers.

The drivers had to report their hours of service to a coordinator daily. The coordinator scheduled all dispatches depending on the available driving time and the estimated time for travel between the distribution centers and the retail stores. The coordinator informed the driver of his dispatches, either on the driver’s arrival at the distribution center or on his return to the distribution center from the retail store. The driver was usually expected to take a loaded truck trailer from the distribution center to the retail store and return back with an empty trailer.

He had to dispatch a loaded truck trailer at the retail store and spend the night there. A driver had to bring the trailer at the dock of a store only at its scheduled unloading time, no matter when he arrived at the store. The drivers delivered the trailers in the afternoon and evening hours and they would be unloaded at the store at nights. There was a gap of two hours between unloading of each trailer. For instance, if a store received three trailers, the first one would be unloaded at midnight (12 AM), the second one would be unloaded at 2 AM and the third one at 4 AM.

Although, the trailers were left unattended, they were secured by the drivers, until the store personnel took charge of them at night. Wal-Mart received more trailers than they had docks, due to their large volume of business. Wal-Mart maintained a strict vigil over its drivers by keeping a record of their activities through the “Private Fleet Driver Handbook” (Refer Exhibit III). The purpose of the book was to educate the drivers with regard to the code of conduct. It also included the terms and conditions regarding the safe exchange of trailers with the store personnel and the safety of Wal-Mart’s property.

This book also contained a list of other activities, the non-compliance of which would result in the termination of the driver. To make its distribution process more efficient, Wal-Mart also made use of a logistics technique known as ‘cross-docking. ’ In this system, the finished goods were directly picked up from the manufacturing plant of a supplier, sorted out and then directly supplied to the customers. The system reduced the handling and storage of finished goods, virtually eliminating the role of the distribution centers and stores. There were five types of cross-docking (Refer Exhibit IV). 5

Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices In cross docking, requisitions received for different goods from a store were converted into purchase or procurement orders. These purchase orders were then forwarded to the manufacturers who conveyed their ability or inability to supply the goods within a particular period of time. In cases where the manufacturer agreed to supply the required goods within the specified time, the goods were directly forwarded to a place called the staging area. The goods were packed here according to the orders received from different stores and then directly sent to the respective customers.

To gain maximum out of cross-docking, Wal-Mart had to make fundamental changes in its approach to managerial control. Traditionally, decisions about merchandising, pricing and promotions had been highly centralized and were generally taken at the corporate level. The crossdocking system, however, changed this practice. The system shifted the focus from “supply chain” to the “demand chain,” which meant that instead of the retailer ‘pushing’ products into the system; customers could ‘pull’ products, when and where they needed.

This approach placed a premium on frequent, informal cooperation among stores, distribution centers and suppliers with far less centralized control than earlier. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Wal-Mart had developed an ability to cater to the individual needs of its stores. Stores could choose from a number of delivery plans. For instance, there was an accelerated delivery system by which stores located within a certain distance of a geographical center could receive replenishment within a day. Wal-Mart invested heavily in IT and communications systems to effectively track sales and merchandise inventories in stores across the country.

With the rapid expansion of Wal-Mart stores in the US, it was essential to have a good communication system. Hence, Wal-Mart set up its own satellite communication system in 1983. Explaining the benefits of the system Walton said, “I can walk in the satellite room, where our technicians sit in front of the computer screens talking on the phone to any stores that might be having a problem with the system, and just looking over their shoulders for a minute or two will tell me a lot about how a particular day is going. On the screen, I can see the total of the day’s bank credit sales adding up as they occur.

If we have something really important or urgent to communicate to the stores and distribution centers, I, or any other Wal-Mart executive can walk back to our TV studio and get on that satellite transmission and get it right out there. I can also go every Saturday morning around three, look over these printouts and know precisely what kind of work we have had. ” Wal-Mart was able to reduce unproductive inventory by allowing stores to manage their own stocks, reducing pack sizes across many product categories, and timely price markdowns.

Instead of cutting inventory across the board, Wal-Mart made full use of its IT capabilities to make more inventories available in the case of items that customers wanted most, while reducing the overall inventory levels. Wal-Mart also networked its suppliers through computers. The company entered into collaboration with P&G for maintaining the inventory in its stores and built an automated reordering system, which linked all computers between P&G and its stores and other distribution centers. The computer system at Wal-Mart stores identified an item which was low in stock and sent a signal to P&G.

The system then sent a re-supply order to the nearest P&G factory through a satellite communication system. P&G then delivered the item either to the Wal-Mart distribution center or directly to the concerned stores. This collaboration between Wal-Mart and P&G was a win-win proposition for both because Wal-Mart could monitor its stock levels in the stores constantly and also identify the items that were moving fast. P&G could also lower its costs and pass on some of the savings to Wal-Mart due to better coordination. 6 Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices

Employees at the stores had the ‘Magic Wand,’ a hand-held computer which was linked to in-store terminals through a radio frequency network. These helped them to keep track of the inventory in stores, deliveries and backup merchandise in stock at the distribution centers. The order management and store replenishment of goods were entirely executed with the help of computers through the Point-of-Sales (POS) system. Through this system, it was possible to monitor and track the sales and merchandise stock levels on the store shelves.

Wal-Mart also made use of the sophisticated algorithm system which enabled it to forecast the exact quantities of each item to be delivered, based on the inventories in each store. Since the data was accurate, even bulk items could be broken and supplied to the stores. Wal-Mart also used a centralized inventory data system using which the personnel at the stores could find out the level of inventories and the location of each product at any given time. It also showed whether a product was being loaded in the distribution center or was in transit on a truck.

Once the goods were unloaded at the store, the store was furnished with full stocks of inventories of a particular item and the inventory data system was immediately updated. Wal-Mart also made use of bar coding and radio frequency technology to manage its inventories. Using bar codes and fixed optical readers, the goods could be directed to the appropriate dock, from where they were loaded on to the trucks for shipment. Bar coding devices enabled efficient picking, receiving and proper inventory control of the appropriate goods.

It also enabled easy order packing and physical counting of the inventories. In 1991, Wal-Mart had invested approximately $4 billion to build a retail link system. More than 10,000 Wal-Mart retail suppliers used the retail link system to monitor the sales of their goods at stores and replenish inventories. The details of daily transactions, which approximately amounted to more than 10 million per day, were processed through this integrated system and were furnished to every Wal-Mart store by 4 a. m. , the next day.

In October 2001, Wal-Mart tied-up with Atlas Commerce for upgrading the system through the Internet enabled technologies. Wal-Mart owned the largest and most sophisticated computer system in the private sector. The company used Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) computer system to track the movement of goods and stock levels. All information related to sales and inventories was passed on through an advanced satellite communication system. To provide back-up in case of a major breakdown or service interruption, the company had an extensive contingency plan.

By making effective use of computers in all its company’s operations, Wal-Mart was successful in providing uninterrupted service to its customers, suppliers, stockholders and trading partners. THE BENEFITS REAPED Wal-Mart strongly believed and constantly emphasized on strengthening its relationships with its customers, suppliers and employees. The company was very vigilant and sensed the smallest of changes in store layouts and merchandising techniques to improve performance and value for customers. The company made efforts to capitalize on every cost saving opportunity.

The savings on cost were always passed on to the consumers, thereby adding value at every stage and process. Wal-Mart also enjoyed the benefits of low transportation costs since it had its own transportation system which assisted Wal-Mart in delivering the goods to different stores within (or sometimes less than) 48 hours. Transportation costs for Wal-Mart were estimated at approximately 3% of the total costs as compared to 5% for their competitors. Having its own transportation system enabled Wal-Mart to replenish the shelves four times faster than its competitors.

Wal-Mart priced its goods economically and the prices varied from day to day. The company enjoyed good bargaining power as it purchased huge quantities. This enabled it to price its products competitively and pass on the benefits to the consumers. The company offered higher discounts than any other retailer and they earned good revenues in the form of higher volumes. Low pricing ensured that the sales volumes were high and consistent. 7 Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices

The benefits of an efficient supply chain management system included reduction in lead time,1 faster inventory turnover, accurate forecasting of inventory levels, increased warehouse space, reduction in safety stock and better working capital utilization. It also helped reduce the dependency on the distribution center management personnel resulting in minimization of training costs and errors. The stock-out of goods and the subsequent loss arising out of it was completely eliminated. Wal-Mart’s supply chain management practices resulted in increased efficiency in operations and better customer service.

It eliminated old stocks and maintained quality of goods. Bar coding and radio frequency technologies enabled accurate distribution of goods. Cross-docking also helped Wal-Mart to reduce inventory storage costs. It also helped to cut down the labor and other handling costs involved in the loading and unloading of goods. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: 1. Wal-Mart has been able to achieve respectable leadership in the retail industry because of its focus on supply chain management. Discuss in detail the distribution and logistics system adopted by Wal-Mart. 2.

The use of innovative information technology tools had benefited Wal-Mart’s supply chain management. In the light of the above statement, briefly explain how IT benefited Wal-Mart’s logistics and inventory management. 3. What were the supply chain management processes adopted by Wal-Mart and how far were they effective? Discuss. 4. What was the nature of benefits derived by Wal-Mart from the efficient supply chain management practices and how far it has contributed to its sustainable competitive advantage? Explain. 1 The time taken for goods to reach Wal-Mart stores from the place of manufacture. 8

Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices EXHIBIT I WORLD’S 25 LARGEST RETAIL COMPANIES BY SALES (2002) Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Company Name Wal-Mart Carrefour Ahold Home Depot Kroger Metro AG Target Albertson’s Tesco Sears, Roebuck Safeway Costco Rewe Gruppe ITM Enterprises J. C. Penny Aldi Gruppe Edeka Gruppe (incl. AVA) J Sainsbury PinaultPrintempsRedoute Walgreen Leclerc Auchan Tengelmann Gruppe CVS Lowe’s Country U. S. France Netherlands U. S. U. S. Germany U. S. U. S. U. K. U. S. U. S. U. S. Germany France U. S. Germany Germany U. K. France U. S. France France Germany U. S. U. S.

Sector Discount Store Hypermarket Supermarket/Hypermarket Home improvement Supermarket Diversified Discount Store/Department store Supermarket Supermarket/Hypermarket Department store/General merchandise Supermarket Wholesale club Diversified Diversified Department store/Drug store Food/Discount store Diversified Supermarket/ Hypermarket Diversified Drug store Diversified Hypermarket/ Diversified Diversified Drug store Home Improvement 2001 Sales (in mn Dollars) 217,800 67,721 64,902 53,553 50,098 48,264 39,175 37,931 37,378 35,847 34,301 34,137 33,640 32,922 32,004 30,000 29,392 27,121 27,079 24,623 24,195 23,478 23,393 22,241 22,111 Rank by Market Cap. 1 6 12 2 13 32 5 20 9 14 15 11 P P 48 P P 25 27 3 P P P 18 7 Source: www. chainstoreage. com Note: *P: Privately owned All amounts are in millions of U. S. ollars, using the average 2001 exchange rates. All data is corporate level for retail-diversified companies, excluding VAT and non-retailing revenue when available. The different businesses of Japanese Conglomerates are accounted for separately. 9 Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices EXHIBIT II THE STRENGTH OF WALMART Yearly sales Total employees across the globe Number of stores worldwide Number of Supercenters Number of Sam’s Clubs Number of new stores opened in 2002 Number of suppliers Number of Wal-Mart’s in Texas (US) Value of 100 shares of Wal-Mart (as on January 28, 2003) purchased in 1970 @ $16. 50 per share Wal-Mart’s rank/position among all retailers in the

US (in terms of grocery sales) Wal-Mart’s rank in jewellery sales Number of pallets shipped by Wal-Mart truck every week Annual sales of hot dogs by Wal-Mart every year (approx) Percentage of dry dog food bought by Wal-Mart in the US Total occupied floor area of Wal-Mart Percentage of toothpaste bought by Wal-Mart Yearly advertising expenditure Yearly purchase of gold for Wal-Mart by its suppliers Highest one-day sales record till date (November 23, 2001) Number of Learjets owned by Wal-Mart Number of pilots owned by Wal-Mart Number of employees employed by Wal-Mart in China Yearly sales of 850 McDonalds stores that operate inside Wal-Mart stores Number of customers everyday at Wal-Mart stores worldwide Number of every day visitors at Wal-Mart’s website, walmart. com Number of items stored by a Wal-Mart Supercenters Items stored by walmart. com Estimated market capitalization of Wal-Mart in 2020 $220 billion 1. 28 million 4,382 1,060 495 420 30,000 316 $11. 5 million 1 1 50 million 70 million 35% 18. square miles 24% $498 million 18. 4 metric tonne $1. 25 billion 18 60 4000 $1. 3 billion 15. 7 million 4, 50,000 1,00,000 6,00,000 $11. 1 trillion 10 Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices EXHIBIT III PRIVATE FLEET DRIVER HANDBOOK Wal-Mart’s Private Fleet Driver Handbook contained terms and conditions with regard to termination of the truck drivers. According to the Wal-Mart’s Private Fleet Driver Handbook, a driver could be terminated from his job if he refused to deliver an assignment given to him. However, if a driver refused to deliver the assignment due to fatigue or insufficient rest, the refusal was not considered as a violation.

This book included other rules, the violation of which would result in immediate termination of the driver. This book was maintained by Wal-Mart to create awareness about the role, duties and responsibilities of a driver towards the company, society and profession in various situations. The expected actions of each driver and the ‘code of behavior’ was clearly detailed in this handbook and the driver had to strictly adhere to these rules and regulations. However, drivers were not terminated simply because they violated the rules and terms mentioned in the handbook. The facts, circumstances, situations and other collaborative evidence were taken into account and thoroughly assessed to decide about the termination.

When a driver violated a rule or ‘code of behavior’, he was not terminated immediately, but was first taught the correct code of behavior by Wal-Mart. For example, though the handbook mentioned that drivers had to be very polite and kind while dealing with the store personnel and others, a driver was not terminated for being rude. Instead, he was given a warning and asked to behave properly. He was terminated only when he showed no improvement. The drivers were also required to secure the truck trailers at the time of delivering them to the stores. The inability or failure to do so was not considered as a breach of contract that would result in immediate termination. However, a driver was once terminated from his job (in the year 2000) by Wal-Mart’s then Private Fleet Manager, Mr.

Paul Darwin, (who took charge in 1998) for leaving a trailer unsecured at one of the stores near a highway. Moreover, according to the rules mentioned in the handbook, the drivers should exchange the truck trailers in a totally ‘safe and responsible’ manner, so that neither the trailers are damaged during exchange or in transit, nor does it result in any loss to other people in the form of injury, etc. When a driver leaves an unloaded trailer in front of the Wal-Mart store for the store personnel to pick it up, he should ensure that the trailer is properly safeguarded and secured against a closed dock in the store. This would ensure that no other person would gain access to the unloaded trailers.

For Wal-Mart, an avoidable accident was a more severe offense than refusing to deliver an assignment for dispatch. Mr. Paul Darwin, the then Private Fleet Manager of Wal-Mart, once dismissed a driver for being involved in an accident that could have been avoided or prevented. However, the driver’s dismissal was later withdrawn. Source: U. S. Dept. of Labor, www. oalj. dol. gov 11 Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain Management Practices EXHIBIT IV TYPES OF CROSS DOCKING Opportunistic Cross docking In this method of cross docking, exact information about where the required good was to be shipped and from where it has to be procured and the exact quantity to be shipped, was needed.

This method of cross docking enabled the company to directly ship the goods needed by the retail customers, without storing them in the warehouse bins or shelves. Opportunistic cross docking could also be used when the warehouse management software, installed by the retailer, alerted him that a particular product was ready for moving and could be moved immediately. Flow-through Cross docking In this type of cross docking, there was a constant inflow and outflow of goods from the distribution center. This type of cross docking was mostly suitable for perishable goods, which had a very short time span, or goods that were difficult to be stored in the warehouses.

This cross docking system was mostly followed by the supermarkets and other retail discount stores, especially for perishable items. Distributor Cross docking In this type of cross docking, the manufacturer delivered the goods directly to the retailer. No intermediaries were involved in this process. This enabled the retailer to save a major portion of the costs in the form of storage. As the retailer did not need to maintain a distribution center for storing various kinds of goods, he helped him save warehouse costs. The lead time for the delivery of goods from the manufacturer to the consumer was also drastically reduced. However, this method had some disadvantages too.

The transportation costs for both the manufacturer and the retailer tended to increase over a period of time, when the goods were required to be transported to different locations several times. Moreover, the transportation system had to be very fast. Otherwise, the very purpose of cross docking was lost. The transportation system should also be highly responsive and take the responsibility for the delays in delivery of the goods. The retailer was at a greater risk. He lost the advantages of sharing the risks with the manufacturer. This type of cross docking was suitable only for those retailers who had a large distribution network and could be used in situations when goods had to be delivered in a short span of time.

Manufacturing Cross docking In Manufacturing cross docking, these cross docking facilities served the factories and acted as temporary and “mini warehouses. ” Whenever a manufacturing company required some parts or materials for manufacturing a particular product, it was delivered by the supplier in small lots within a very short span of time, just when it was needed. This helped reduce the transportation and warehouse costs substantially. Pre-Allocated Cross Docking Pre-allocated cross docking is very much like the usual cross-docking, except that in this type of cross docking, the goods are already packed and labeled by the manufacturer and it is ready for shipment to the distribution center from where it is sent to the store.

The goods can be delivered by the distribution center directly to the store without opening the pack of the manufacturer and re-packing the goods. The store can then deliver the goods directly to the consumer without any further repacking. Goods received by the distribution center or the store are directly sent into the outbound shipping truck, to be delivered to the consumer, without altering the package of the good. Cross docking requires very close co-ordination and co-operation of the manufacturers, warehouse personnel and the stores personnel. Goods can be easily and quickly delivered only when accurate information is available readily. The information can be managed with the help of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and other general sales information. Do No 12 tC op y

Is There a Philippinre Public Administration

IS THERE A PHILIPPINE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? OR BETTER STILL, FOR WHOM IS PHILIPPINE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? 1 Alex Brillantes, Jr. and Maricel Fernandez 2 I Yes, there is a Philippine Public Administration Is there a Philippine public administration? A number of our colleagues asked us why we are asking that question again as we were planning this colloquium. Indeed that question had been asked 20 years ago, and answers have been provided us by eminent scholars of Public Administration such as Raul de Guzman and Onofre Corpuz.

After two decades, we think it is worthwhile to revisit the issue and ask our colleagues once again to answer the question, “Is there a Philippine Public Administration? ” This time around, we take the question a little further and ask an equally important second question, “If there is a Philippine Public Administration, then for whom does Philippine Public Administration exist? Among the basic references we have been using in the general introductory course in Public Administration at both the graduate (PA 201) and undergraduate (PA 11) levels are essays by the aforementioned eminent scholars of Philippine Public Administration (Dr de Guzman and Dr Corpuz). These essays were published in a special issue of the Philippine Journal of Public Administration in 3 1986 (PJPA). While de Guzman and Corpuz both assert that there is a Philippine Public Administration, both also suggest that the question be properly contextualized.

There is a Philippine Public Administration as far as there is an American, French and Thai public administration. There is a Philippine public administration as far as there are institutions of public administration addressing specific sectoral concerns. There is a Philippine public administration as far as it being a field of study is concerned. There is a Philippine public administration considering the massive role of the bureaucracy in Philippine public administration.

There is a Philippine public administration when we consider its major institutions in education, politics and government. Yes we have basic public administration structures and processes. We have an executive branch with the bureaucracy at its core. We have a Philippine legislature. We have a Philippine judiciary. We have Philippine electoral processes and procedures. We have Philippine sub-national institutions and local governments, together with decentralization processes and procedures. It is within this context that we argue that indeed, we have a Philippine public dministration characterized by the presence of administrative structures and processes operating within a unique Philippine context. The paper contextualizes the field of public administration by discussing the following: (a) the evolution of the field of public administration suggesting that there are only two major phases (traditional and modern phase); (b) the different fields of public administration; (c) selected major ongoing concerns of public administration in the Philippines (reorganization, decentralization and corruption).

The paper also includes a brief discussion of an example of what is now considered as an emerging illustration of a home grown governance paradigm (Gawad Kalinga) as one that illustrates successful cooperation between government, business and civil society in the delivery of basic services, which after all is a core concern of modern public administration and good governance. The paper then ends by raising third order concerns as we address the question, “for whom is public 4 administration. One has to make an evaluation – and a judgment call – as to whether the discipline of Philippine public administration has indeed responded – or failed to respond – to the unique calls and demands of the times. This will enable us to answer the question posed at the outset, “for whom is A paper presented in the public colloquium on: “Is there a Philippine Public Administration: A Timeless Issue,” held on June 26-27, 2008 at the UP National College of Public Administration and Governance (UP NCPAG). Professor and Dean, University of the Philippines, National College of Public Administration and Governance (UP NCPAG), and University Researcher (UP NCPAG) and former instructor of Saint Paul University Philippines, respectively. The assistance of Kate Asilo in the preparation of this paper is gratefully acknowledged. 3 Philippine Journal of Public Administration, 30:4, October 1986, pp 368-382. This paper may also serve as a basic introduction to the theory and practice of public administration, zeroing in on selected and basic Philippine public administration issues and concerns. 1 1 public administration? ” This is a question that ultimately must be addressed not only by those teaching public administration but also by those studying public administration as well. While this paper will not even pretend to answer that question, it will raise issues and concerns about the matter that may trigger further questions and debate. II.

EVOLUTION OF THE FIELD OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION In order to properly appreciate the context of Philippine public administration, it may be helpful to retrace the history and evolution of the broad discipline and examine the various strands and influences that have influenced the theory and practice – the praxis – of public administration in the Philippines. We shall also examine the specific areas and fields of specialization of the field, taking cognizance of the many other emerging fields going beyond the traditional fields of public administration.

The discipline of the field of public administration can be divided into two major phases: the traditional / classical phase from the late 1800s to the 1950s to the modern phase, from the 1950s to the present. The Modern phase can be further divided into the following sub-phases: development administration (1950s to the 60s), new public administration (1960s to the 70s), new public management and reinventing governance (1980s into the 90s) and finally public administration as governance (1990s into the present). The following is an indicative matrix that reflects the phases in the evolution of public administration.

Table 1. Phases in the Evolution of Public Administration Phase Traditional / Classical Public Administration Modern Public Administration Development Administration (1950s to 1960s) New Public Administration (1970s) New Public Management (1980s to 1990s) Reinventing Government (1990s) PA as Governance (1990s to the present) Indicative Period 1800s to 1950s 1950 to the present Traditional / Classical Public Administration Public Administration can be traced back to human history. It has been suggested that it is as old as the ncient empires of China, India, Egypt, Greece, Rome and Mesopotomia. The institutionalization of administrative capacity for collective purposes is the foundation of public administration. Such arrangement, according to Caiden (1982), has existed in all societies. All societies are devoted to advancing the general welfare or the public interest. The idea that “public administration should not be considered administration of the public but administration for the public” has been practiced and expressed in the Code of Hammurabi, in Confucianism and in the funeral oration of Pericles. Caiden 1982: 7) In other words, the idea of client-oriented public administration has its roots in ancient public administration. Caiden (1982) also noted that the genesis of Public Administration must have had originated from monarchial Europe where household officials were divided into two groups: one in charge of public affairs, i. e. the administration of justice, finance, training of armies, and the other is responsible for personal services. Rutgers (1998) supports this claim that (i. e. royal) administration had already th th been manifested way back in the mid 17 century and early 18 century in Prussia.

F. K. Medikus (as cited in Rutgers 1998) likewise argued on the study of public administration and its positions amidst the sciences in the 18th century. He advocated “cameralism” and claimed that it should be treated as an autonomous field of study of great importance to the state. Cameral science is designed to prepare potential public officials for government service. This practice flourished in Europe until the 21st century but it was, in the long run, replaced by administrative law and legal studies. 2

Since this paper tries to trace the roots of Philippine Public Administration, it shall dwell on American theories and principles which admittedly influenced the direction and development of the formal study of the field of public administration in the Philippines, both at the levels of theory and practice. It will be recalled that public administration as academic field of study formally begun with the establishment by the Americans of the Institute of Public Administration (IPA) in the University of the Philippines (UP) in 1952. Hence, the close affinity of Philippine PA heory to American PA theory and practice can not be divorced. 1800s to 1950s If the roots of Public Administration as a distinct field of study have to be traced, the tendency is to draw on Woodrow Wilson’s 1887 classic essay, “The Study of Public Administration,” which was 5 written at the height of Progressive Movement in the US. It was in that essay that there was a serious claim that public administration should be a self-conscious, professional field. Wilson suggested the distinction between politics and administration i. e. dministration should be politics-free and that “the field of administration is the field of business;” (Wilson 1953: 71) thus, establishing what became known as the “politics-administration” dichotomy. 6 Although Wilson set a demarcation line between politics and administration, Frank Goodnow (1900), the “Father of American Public Administration,” presented a more meticulous examination of politics-administration dichotomy in his book, “Politics and Administration” that “supplanted the traditional concern with the separation of powers among the various branches of the government. (Shafritz and Hyde 1997: 2) Politicsadministration dichotomy has provoked long-running debates which persist until today. It may be argued though that, as far as the Philippine experience is concerned, the dichotomy is artificial and that in practice, power and partisan politics have had a disproportionate influence upon the workings of public administration in the Philippines. Max Weber (1946), a German sociologist who is known as the “Father of Modern Sociology,” made a lucid descriptive analysis of bureaucratic organizations.

He presented some major variables or features of bureaucracy such as: hierarchy, division of labor, formally written rules and procedures, impersonality and neutrality; hence, providing a reference point in evaluating both the good and bad effects of bureaucratic structures. (Weber 1946 as cited in Shafritz and Hyde 1997) It was in 1926 that the first text in the field of public administration was written by Leonard D. 7 White. His book, Introduction to the Study of Public Administration, is one of the most influential texts in public administration to date.

One of his assumptions was that administration is still an art. He, however, recognized the ideal of transforming it into a science. Interestingly, his work avoided the potential pitfalls of the politics-administration dichotomy but rather concentrated on emphasizing the managerial phase of administration. From Classical, Neo-Classical to Integrative/Modern Organization Theories Frederick Taylor, dubbed as the “Father of Scientific Management,” is best known for his “one best way approach” in accomplishing task.

Classical organization theory evolved from this notion. Another popular manifestation of this approach was that of Luther Gulick’s POSDCORB 8 methodologies. Gulick and Urwick (1937 as cited in Shafrtiz and Hyde 1997) integrated the ideas of earlier theorists like Henri Fayol 9 into a comprehensive theory of administration. They believed that a single science of administration, which exceeds the boundaries of the private and the public sector, exists. The reasoning of the science of administration was largely borrowed from Fayol’s fourteen principles of organization.

POSDCORB, however, was seen as less influential in post-war American government. Thereafter, Simon, Waldo and Appleby attacked the idea of POSDCORB. Simon (1946) in his book, “Administrative Behavior,” created a distinction between theoretical and practical science. He introduced more common principles in the literature of administration which highlighted See Woodrow, Wilson. 1953. “The Study of Public Administration” in Ideas and Issues in Public Administration, ed. Dwight Waldo. New York: Mc Graw Hill Book, Co. , Inc. , 64-75. Reyes (2003) emphasized however that aside from the Americans with the likes of Wilson, de Tocqueville, a Frenchman, who traveled the length and breadth of the US in the 1830s to observe America’s penal system, was one of the earliest voices to call for a more serious consideration of Public Administration as a “science of administration. ” 7 th See Leonard D. White. 1997 “Introduction to the Study of Public Administration,” in Classics of Public Administration. 4 ed. Jay M. Shafritz and Albert C. Hyde. US: Hardcourt Brace College Publishers. 4-50. (first printed in 1926) 8 POSDCORB was coined by Gulick with Urwick. It stands for the functions of management – planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting & budgeting. 9 Fayol was one of the most influential contributors of modern management. He proposed that there are five primary functions of management: (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) commanding, (4) coordinating, and (5) controlling (Fayol, 1949, 1987). 5 3 administrative efficiency and specialization when he wrote the article,“The Proverbs of Administration. (Simon 1946 as cited in Shafffritz and Hyde 1997; Stillman 1991) On the other hand, in 1945, Appleby, led a postwar attack on the concept of politics-administration dichotomy by drafting a convincing case that “public administration was not something apart from politics” but rather at the “center of political life. ” (Stillman 1991: 123) In 1948, Dwight Waldo tried to establish the direction and thrust of Public Administration as a field of study in his book, “The Administrative State,” which hit the “gospel of efficiency” that dominated the administrative thinking prior to Word War II. 0 That same year, Sayre attacked public personnel administration as “the triumph over purpose. ” (Shafritz and Hyde 1997: 74) In 1949, Selznick introduced the so-called “cooptative mechanism” where he defined “cooptation” as “the process of absorbing new elements into the leadership or policy determining structure of an organization as a means of averting threats to its stability or existence. ” (Shafritz and Hyde 1997: 147) A contemporary of Goodnow was William Willoughby (1918). Willoughby stressed the role of the trilogy covering all three branches of government but he was more known for his budgetary reforms.

He discussed the movements for budgetary reforms in the US in view of the budget as an instrument for democracy, as an instrument for correlating legislative and executive action, and as an instrument for securing administrative efficiency and economy. Mary Parker Follet (1926) also made some significant contribution to the discourse of Public Administration as one of the proponents of participatory management and the “law of situation” which can be attributed to the concept of contingency management. She illustrated the advantages of participatory management in her article, “The Giving of Orders. In the 1920s and early 1930s, Elton Mayo conducted the Hawthorne experiments on the theory of individuals within an organization which propelled the human relations school of management thought. Chester Barnard (1938) presented a more comprehensive theory of organizational behavior when he wrote the functions of the executive. He argued that for the executive to become more effective, he should maintain an equilibrium between the needs of the employees and the organization. Maslow (1943), on the other hand, focused on the hierarchical needs of the individual.

His “theory of human motivation,” states that the human being has five sets of needs: physiological, safety, love or affiliation, esteem and ultimately, and self-actualization. His concepts were later explored and developed into more comprehensive theories and principles as advocated by other researches in organizational behavior and management, such as, Herzberg’s “motivation11 Argyris’ “personality versus organization and hygiene theory,” Mc Gregor’s “Theory X and Y,” Likert’s Systems 1 to 4, among others. Shafritz and Hyde 1997) Modern Public Administration This paper suggests the indicative period of modern public administration in the 50s. The subphases include: (a) development administration; (b) new public administration; (c) new public management and reinventing government; and PA as governance. The discipline of public administration has been characterized as one with a continuing “identify crisis. ” To a certain extent, it was that “identity crisis” that served as theme that led to the emergence of the New Public Administration movement in the 70s.

Rutgers (1998) argued in “Paradigm lost: Crisis as Identify of the Study of Public Administration,” that public administration lacked an “epistemological identity. ” In the Philippines, Reyes (2003) revisited the so-called “identity crisis” of public administration initially raised by various scholars of the discipline in his various writings. He contended that the crisis revolved around the imperative to define a public administration rooted to the development aspirations of the Philippines.

The identity crisis, however, continues up to today in the Philippines. Development Administration (1950s to 1960s) Development Administration (DA) as a field of study emerged in 1950s and 1960s with the third world countries as the focal point. The term “third world” may be attributed to the French demographer and economic historian Alfred Sauvy, who at the height of the Cold War in 1952, used the term to distinguish developing countries outside the two power blocs; namely, the First World and 10 th

See Waldo’s conclusion in the Classics of Public Administration. 4 ed. Jay M. Shafritz and Albert C. Hyde. (US: Hardcourt Brace College Publishers, 1997), 142-153. 11 At one point in the history of the evolution of management theories, there emerged what was referred to as “Theory Z” that was largely derived and based on the highly effective and efficient Japanese approach to management. 4 the Second World respectively. Chilcote 1984) Nef and Dwivedi (1981) on the other hand, attributed the concept of DA to Goswami in 1955 and later popularized by Riggs and Weidner. They coined the term “development administration” to refer to developing countries which are largely found in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. These developing countries endeavored to make concerted efforts in order to be recognized as “emerging nations” and to resurrect themselves after World War II.

In the context of “emerging nation,” Landau (1970) described DA as the engineering of social change. Likewise, according to Ilchman (1970), these countries were “concerned with increasing the capacity of the state to produce goods and services to meet and induce changing demands. ” (Ilchman 1970: 136) Gant (1979) on the other hand, defined DA as not merely addressing state functions such as public service delivery and enforcement of laws but the inducement and management of change to pursue development aspirations.

These developing countries were in urgent need to implement fundamental 12 reforms in their politico-administrative machinery. Khator, however, argued that DA was built upon several critical assumptions that: (1) development needs are the most important needs of developing countries, (2) the development needs of developing and developed countries are inherently different, (3) development can be administered, (4) developmental know-hows are transferable; and (5) the political, social, and cultural context of development can be easily altered. Khator 1998: 1778) Likewise, Fred Riggs, in his “Frontiers of Development,” identified two foci in development administration: development of administration and the administration of development. Most development administration scholars focused more on the latter and it subsequently became synonymous to the administration of development in third world countries. (Khator 1998) Given the situations above, DA maybe considered as “management of innovation” because it was aimed at helping countries that are undergoing reconstruction and social transformation.

In the Philippines, The term “development administration” was used to suggest that it may be an appropriate framework to examine the State’s experience as it tries to rebuild its institutions within a democratic framework, as it struggles to new economic, political and social challenges, and as it adapts to the trends and demands of globalization. Additionally, DA principles have been mong the major themes that ran through the various lectures and writings of Raul De Guzman, who together with OD Corpuz (1986) initially addressed the question: “Is there a Philippine Pa? ” Since the idea was to steer developing countries for economic development and social progress, the term DA became closely associated to foreign aid and western models of development. 13 These Western countries provide grants and aids to developing countries for nation-building, economic development, institutional strengthening, and people participation in development.

As to administrative reform, which is one of the core values of DA, De Guzman (1986) described and analyzed the structural and behavioral characteristics of the Philippine public bureaucracy and argued that the “implementation of administrative reform should have two major dimensions: reforming the structures of the bureaucracy and reforming the behavior of those in the bureaucracy. ” (De Guzman 1986 as cited in Brillantes 1994: 8) Development administration has always been one of the central features of the various long and medium term Philippine Development Plans since the seventies.

The paradigm for bureaucratic reform continues to evolve in various intellectual and practical debates but government continues its work amidst all these. Until recently, all Philippine development plans since the seventies had a 14 specific chapter devoted solely to development administration. New Public Administration (late 1960s to 1970s) The term “New Public Administration” or New PA may have emerged from the Minnowbrook Conference in 1968 in Syracuse University. The conference was the brainchild and inspiration of See Alex Brillantes 1995. Development Administration in the Philippines” for an in-depth discussion of development administration in the Philippines, in Conquering Politico-Administrative Frontiers, Essays in Honor of Raul P. de Guzman, edited by Ledevina Carino. 13 Note that Development Administration is popularized in developing countries like the Philippines although the conceptual foundations of the term were Western in nature influenced largely by scientific management and administrative reform. 4 In the Philippines, the formal introduction of Public Administration as a field of study essentially began when the Institute of Public Administration (IPA) was established in the University of the Philippines in 1952 through an agreement between UP and University of Michigan as an offshoot of Bell Mission’s recommendation to improve the Philippine Government. The Institute served as a training ground for civil servants and as a research arm. Later, it offered degree programs for Public Administration.

From College of Public Administration, it was renamed in 1998 as National College of Public Administration and Governance (NCPAG). Schools of Public Administration (SPA) were then propagated throughout the country. Propelled by NCPAG, these academic institutions have grouped themselves into an Association of Schools of Public Administration in the Philippines, ASPAP, Inc. The Philippine Journal of Public Administration (PJPA), a quarterly publication of international stature, which was established in 1957 documents rich literatures of Public Administration in the Philippines. 2 5 Dwight Waldo who brought together young public administrators and scholars to discuss important issues and varying perspectives on public administration. The conference created a hullabaloo. One of its controversies is that it had rejected the classical theories of public administration and instead offered new principles. For instance, Frederickson in his essay, “Towards a New Public Administration,” adds social equity to the classic definition of public administration.

Conventional or classic public administration sought to only answer inquiries on efficiency and effectiveness like: how can the government offer better services with available resources (efficiency) or how can we maintain our level of services while spending less money (economy)? In introducing the principles of New PA, he adds the question: “Does this service enhance social equity? ” (Frederickson 1971) Moreover, the Minnowbrook conferees also questioned the relevance of traditional public administration to existing deprivation with an era of fast-paced technological advancement in the backdrop.

Frederickson argued that, disparities existed because public administration focused less on social purposes or values of government policies and programs and more on the economy and efficiency of execution. The value-free and neutral stance of traditional PA has alienated the less privileged and deprived groups in the society. New PA’s proponents, likewise, advocated that public administrators should not be neutral; they should be committed to both good management and social equity as values to be achieved.

New PA then called for client-oriented administration, non-bureaucratic structures, participatory decision-making, decentralized administration and advocate-administrators. (Frederickson 1971; Nigro and Nigro 1989) With the above contentions, it can be said that the theme of New PA is “change” and the challenge is for the public administrators is their capacity to accept change. Now the question is: Is New PA relevant? The same question was asked by Pilar (1993) in his article “Relevance of New PA in Philippine Public Administration. 5 He argued that New PA is relevant while there is no indigenous model of public administration. “The relevance of New PA maybe regarded from in terms of their compatibility with the context or the environment, as well as the convergence between the content and intent of new PA with the goals, purposes, and aspirations of the country. ” (Pilar 1993: 145) The principle of New PA is compatible with the environment of the Philippine PA, although it was conceived during the time that the US was in chaotic and unpredictable environment amidst prosperity.

Such situation is different in the Philippines considering that not only it grappled with advancement but it struggled to pull itself out of poverty which is a major concern of the government up to this date. New PA created the need to stimulate change: meeting the needs of the society through the government’s development programs and projects, and addressing social equity and justice. It must be emphasized though, that the core questions raised by New PA are also embedded in our second order question, “for whom is PA? It is indeed critical to define the ultimate targets and partners of public administration structures, institutions and processes. In other words, who is the “public” in public administration? New Public Management and Reinventing Government (1980s to 1990s) In the 1980s and early 90s, as if there was a collective assault on the organization questioning conventional and traditional ways of doing things – both in the private and public sectors various strategies and modalities underscoring the imperative for fundamental internal and external reform in the organization emerged.

They ranged from being more “client” or “customer” oriented, to the decentralization of authority to being more “business oriented” especially for those in government. The new public management (NPM) movement was apparently practiced by the European countries in the late 1907s and 1980s but was essentially launched several luminaries such as Christopher Hood (1991), Christopher Pollitt (1990), and Michael Barzeley (1992), among others in early 90s. Similar movements such as reinventing government and reengineering also emerged around the same time.

This section introduces NPM, reinventing government and reengineering government. When did these ideas emerge? What were their key features? And were these really more of the same? The New Public Management (NPM) movement has started in the late 1970s in UK under the Thatcher government; however aside from England, NPM has also long been practiced by the other members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) mostly AngloSaxon countries like New Zealand, Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, and Canada in the 1980s. 5 See Nestor, Pilar. 1993. “Relevance of New PA in Philippine Public Administration. ” In Philippine Journal of Public Administration for an in-depth discussion of New PA in the Philippines. 6 The idea of NPM became more popular and has stimulated academic and political interests worldwide when Christopher Hood coined the term in his 1991 article entitled, “A Public Management for all Seasons. ” (Hood 1991) The best example of the NPM practice can be seen in New Zealand’s administrative reforms.

Their government privatized substantial public functions, redeveloped their personnel system in order to be more performance-oriented, instituted new processes of productivity measures, and reengineered departmental systems to reflect government’s commitment. (Boston 1996; as cited in Denhardt 2004: 136-137) In the US, during the administration of US President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore, this concept was reflected in their “National Performance Review” which has urged the federal government to improve its performance.

This has also led the foundation of the praxis of reengineering government led by the Clinton-Gore administration. Parenthetically, NPM was justified by Lynn (1996) in his article, “Public Management as Art, Science, and Profession. ” Moreover, NPM according to Pollitt is a shift into a “managerialist” movement. He then identified five core beliefs of managerialism: (1) the main route to social progress lies in the achievement of continuing increases in economically efined productivity; (2) such productivity increase will mainly come from the application of ever more sophisticated technologies; (3) the application of these technologies can only be achieved with a labor force disciplined in accordance with the productivity ideal; (4) management is a separate and distinct organizational function and one that plays the crucial role in planning, implementing and measuring the necessary improvements in productivity; and (5) to perform this crucial role, managers must be granted reasonable “room to maneuver” (i. . right to manage”). (Pollitt, 1990: 2-3 as cited in Denhardt 2000: 148) The ideas of “new public management” and “reinventing government” were essentially born out of the continuing search for solutions to economic problems in 1970s and to produce a government that “works better but costs less. ” (Denhart 2004: 136) The idea of “reinventing government” was advanced by Osborne and Gaebler in 1992.

Their concept of NPM was sparked by the use of business model prescriptions for government i. e. using private sector innovation, resources, and organizational ideas to improve the public sector. Reinventing Government provided ten principles through which public entrepreneurs might bring about massive governmental reform principles that has remained at the core of the new public management. These are the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Catalytic government: steering rather than rowing Community-owned government: empowering rather than serving Competitive government: injecting competition into service delivery Mission-driven government: transforming rule-driven organizations Results-oriented government: funding outcomes, not inputs Customer-driven government: meeting the needs of the customer not their bureaucracy Enterprising government rather than spending Anticipatory government: prevention rather than cure Decentralized government: from hierarchy to participation and teamwork Market-oriented government: leveraging change through the market (Osborne and Gaebler 1992: 35-282) 16 Among the criticisms of this model, however, was its emphasis on people as “customers” or “clients” rather than “citizens” and that customers were placed as “end-product” users of government rather than as “means” of the policy making process. Denhardt and Denhardt (2003) likewise offer a synthesis of the ideas that are opposed to NPM presented by Osborne and Gaebler. Their model for governance expands the traditional role of the public administrator as a lone arbiter of public interest rather, “the public administrator is seen as a key actor within the larger system of governance. (Denhardt and Denhardt 2003: 81) Following the Reinventing Government, they divided their argument into seven principles, namely, (1) serve citizens, not customers (2) seek the public interest, (3) value citizenship over entrepreneurship, (4) think strategically, act democratically , (5) recognize that accountability is not simple, (6) serve rather than steer, and (6) value people, not just productivity. Another similar movement was “reengineering organizations. ” This term was coined by Michael Hammer (1990) in an article published by the Harvard Business Review. Reengineering offers an approach for improving performance, effectiveness, and efficiency of organizations regardless of the sector in which they operate. According to Hammer and Champy (1993), 16 Cf Denhardt 2004: 137-138 for an in-depth discussion of each principle. 7 reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. ” (Hammer and Champy 1993 as cited in Halachmi 1995: 330). The tenets of reengineering include the following: • Searching for radical improvement in business processes enabled by exploiting the powers of information technology. • Breaking away from the antiquated ways and processes of business operations and starting with a clean slate. • Viewing (and reviewing) the fundamental business processes from cross-functional perspective to ensure that each step in the process adds value. Questioning whether the process is necessary and what it is intended to achieve, given the over-all mission of the organization. • Systematic searching for radical changes for the purpose of effecting major improvements or breakthroughs in business processes when an incremental approach will not work anymore. • Reducing, if not eliminating, paper documentation that enters the process at different stages, with an attempt to capture the data once, at the source. • Focusing on and developing around processes and outcomes, not tasks or organizational functions. • Focusing on the customer or client, in a results-oriented & team-based approach. (Halachmi 1995: 331)

Re-engineering or the so called business process reengineering (BPR) was essentially an innovation that sought to refurbish the operation of an organization’s operation, management system and structure, to improve its efficiency, effectiveness, and competitive ability and ultimately improve service delivery. Re-engineering seems to be an effective way to upgrade the services of our governmental agencies, however, it continues to hurdle obstacles and challenges in applying the formula such as fiscal constraints and the traditional thinking of political leaders. PA as Governance (1990s into the 2000) The many failed development interventions in the 50s into the 90s spurred the introduction of other development reforms. The “governance” paradigm was introduced and advocated by the United Nations (UN), World Bank (WB), Asian Development Bank (ADB) and other international institutions.

The word “governance” suddenly “has become something of a mantra in recent years, uttered by donors, reformers and pundits alike. ” (Frechette 2000: 25) Governance entails a larger scope and has a wider meaning. Though the term “governance” has been used to refer mostly to “government,” when correctly used, “governance” really goes beyond government. It involves the institutionalization of a system through which citizens, institutions, organizations, and groups in a society articulate their interests, exercise their rights, and mediate their differences in pursuit of the collective good. (ADB 1995 as cited in ADB 2005: 1) UNDP describes it as “the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority to manage a nation’s affairs.

It embraces all of the methods- good and bad – that societies use to distribute power and manage public resources and problems. ” (UNDP 1997: 9) Carino (2000), in her reflections on the term “governance,” identified actors and factors that pushed for governance. She acknowledges that governance is not the sole responsibility of the government per se but the role of the market and civil society are of equal importance too and should also be recognized. She then identified the factors or processes that pushed for governance and some of these are: the quest for growth and development, the environmental movement, globalization and consolidating peace.

These are practically the same values or virtues found in the UN Charter. Likewise, governance promotes the virtues of decentralization, participation, responsiveness and accountability among others. From “governance”, the concept of “good governance” has emerged and became prominent in international aid circles around 1989 or 1990. It served as a general guiding principle for donor agencies to demand that recipient governments adhere to proper administrative processes in the handling of development assistance and put in place effective policy instruments towards that end. (Doornbos 2003) When there is good governance, there is sustainable development.

Kofi Annan, in st his inaugural speech in the 1 International Conference on Governance for Sustainable Growth and Equity in United Nations, New York, in July 28-30, 1997 affirms this when he said that: “Good governance and sustainable development are indivisible. That is the lesson of all our efforts and experiences, from Africa to Asia to Latin America. Without good governance – without the rule of law, predictable administration, legitimate power, and responsive regulation — no amount of funding, no amount 8 of charity will set us on the path to prosperity…We are fully engaged in efforts to improve governance around the world…good governance is indispensable for building peaceful, prosperous and democratic societies. ” (Annan 1997)

Annan concluded that “good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development. ” (Annan 1997) An ADB document (2005) affirmed that good governance is synonymous with sound development management. They then identified some key principles of development which may be considered as elements of good governance. These are: accountability, participation, predictability, and transparency. The table below shows the basic elements of good governance and its key dimensions. Table 2. Key Dimensions and Specific Areas of Actions Basic Elements of Good Governance 1. Accountability means making public officials answerable for government behavior and responsive to the entity from which they derive authority 2.

Participation refers to enhancing people’s access to and influence on public policy processes Key Dimensions Establishing criteria to measure performance of public officials Institutionalizing mechanisms to ensure that standards are met. Undertaking development for and by the people • • • • • • • Specific Areas of Action Public Sector Management Public Enterprise Management Public Financial Management Civil Service Reform Participation of beneficiaries and affected groups Interface between government and the private sector Decentralization of public and service delivery functions (empowerment of Local Governments) Cooperation with Non-Government Organizations Law and Development Legal Frameworks for Private Sector Development • 3. Predictability refers to the existence of laws, regulations and policies to regulate society and the fair and consistent application of these 4.

Transparency refers to the availability of Information to the general public and clear government rules, regulations, and decisions Source: ADB, 2005 Establishing and sustaining appropriate legal and institutional arrangements Observing and upholding the rule of law Maintaining consistency of public policies Ensuring access to accurate and timely information about the economy and government policies • • • Disclosure of Information III. FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION This section discusses the various traditional subfields of public administration including the emerging fields in response to a rapidly changing environment. However, even before going into the sub-fields of public administration, it is imperative to recognize the public administration, itself, has been considered as a sub-field of political science. Traditional Sub-fields of Political Science The following have been onsidered as the traditional sub-fields of political science: political theory, international relations and politics; comparative politics; public administration. These are briefly discussed below. Political Theory Political theory is a study and analysis of political ideas of significant political thinkers. It is also a search of knowledge of political thoughts of various historical periods, namely, Ancient, Medieval/Christian, and Modern period. Among the major philosophers and theorists explored in this field of political science are Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Augustine, Aquinas, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and many other political thinkers.

It is recognized that their political ideas shaped the political institutions, law, order, liberty, justice, and the quality of life into concrete historical circumstances. 9 International Relations and Politics As a subfield of political science, international relations have zeroed in on the relations between and among nation states and how such relations are defined. Power has always been traditionally considered a factor in the determination of international relations and politics. The role of international organizations such as the United Nations, including other multilateral bodies such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and closer to home, the Asian Development Bank, in shaping the power relations is an aspect that is also addressed in the study of international relations and politics.

A Political science is the study of foreign policymaking and Comparative Politics Comparative politics is a study of contemporary politics and political trends in selected countries and regions around the world and then comparing and critically analyzing the variety of ways that these countries have chosen to shape their political institutions and processes, assess the costs and benefits of their choices and address common problems, including the challenges of globalization, with an eye toward identifying processes, practices, and policies which might be “exportable” ideas for countries to borrow from one another. Public Administration Public Administration as a discipline emerged out of a broader discipline which is Political Science. Reyes (1993: 22) considers it as a “child of political science” that is mature enough to be treated separately or independently of its mother. ” There is one school of thought that public administration has no generally accepted definition.

The scope of the discipline is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define. Public administration is both a field of study, or a discipline, and a field of practice, or an occupation. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline, largely because it is often viewed as a subfield of the two disciplines of Political Science 17 and administrative science (or administration). In Canada the study of public administration has evolved primarily as a subfield of political science. Knowledge of the machinery of government and of the political and legal environment in which public administrators work is essential in understanding the political system.

Also, public administrators play an important role by providing policy advice to elected politicians and by active involvement in the making, enforcement and adjudication of laws and regulations. As a subfield of administrative science, public administration is part of the generic process of administration. The broad field of administration is divided into public, business, hospital, educational and other forms of administration. The similarities between these forms of administration are considered to be greater than their differences. (http://www. thecanadianencyclopedia. com) In the Philippines, though, Public Administration did not evolve out of the discipline of political science.

More specifically, public administration as an academic field of study was essentially the result of the establishment of the Institute of Public Administration (IPA), and in one sense did not follow the conventional path in the emergence of public administration traditionally considered as a sub-field of political science. 18 Traditionally, the discipline of public administration itself has had the following sub-fields: organization and management; public personnel administration; local government administration; policy analysis and program administration; public enterprise management; voluntary sector management and spatial information management. The following discusses each of these subfields: Drawn from the Canadian Encyclopedia, available at http://www. thecanadianencyclopedia. com Carino (2007) in her paper, “From

Traditional Public Administration to the Governance Tradition: Research in NCPAG, 19952002,” In Public Administration Plus Governance Assessing the Past, Addressing the Future,” talked about the research interests of Filipino scholars in different fields of public administration: traditional public administration; personnel administration, organization and management, fiscal administration, agency studies and the Philippine Administrative system; new public administration, which includes ethics and accountability, public service values, alternative delivery systems, public policy and program administration were also offered and research in the governance tradition like democracy and bureaucracy, citizen participation, decentralization etc. 18 17 10 Organization and Management Organization and Management is one of the oldest subfields of public administration. It basically focuses on sub-areas like organization theory and practice, dynamics of organization, decision-making in administration, leadership and other sub-areas. It particularly discusses the theories, processes and techniques involved in the organization and management of the national government and its agencies.

It also explores modern management techniques such as reinventing, reengineering and other improvement methods in organization and management like total quality management (TQM), 19which has largely contributed to public administration reforms. Public Personnel Administration Public administration consists of administrative processes. It involves people, its most important element, therefore public personnel administration is an equally important field. In here, the definition of personnel management as “the recruitment, selection, development, utilization of, and accommodation to human resources by organizations” (French 1990) is explored. Specifically, it discusses on the evolution of public personnel administration, arrangements of the personnel system, and general attributes of personnel functions in the public sector.

It is also concerned with the developments and current trends in personnel administration. In the traditional public administration, organization and management and personnel administration were emphasized as salient features of study in public administration. Personnel administration has widened its scope and evolved into human resource management or human resource development. The inspiration that not only these two fields complement but supplement each other put them together into what is now called “Organization Studies. ” Public Fiscal Administration Public finance belongs to the branch of economics but that was during the earlier times.

With the emergence of the field of public administration, much interest has been directed towards fiscal administration. Again, this subfield of public administration covers a wide range of issues and topics affecting government operations like taxation, public expenditures and borrowing, resource allocation, revenue administration, auditing and intergovernmental relations. As Briones (1996) puts it, “public fiscal administration embraces the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies and decisions on taxation and revenue administration; resource allocation, budgeting, and public expenditure; public borrowing and debt management; and accounting and auditing. Through the years, many researches were devoted on these topics and issues; the government has also introduced reforms like reforms in tax administration, value added tax (VAT), expanded value added tax (E-VAT), procurement reforms, the medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF), accounting reforms, re-engineering the bureaucracy program (REBP), transforming local finance, and many others. Local Government Administration This is another distinct subfield of public administration. In studying local government administration, the concepts of decentralization are taken into account. Decentralization, as a process, is one of the widely researched topics in promoting development and democratic governance. Administrative organizations and operations of local governments; the structure and processes of regional administration are likewise discussed.

In particular, local government administration may also include topics on theoretical and empirical perspectives of local government and regional administration, community and institutional development, local government systems/procedure, intergovernmental dynamics, local public finance or local fiscal administration, local economic promotion, local and regional development planning, local government innovations and many others. TQM was adopted by Japan and US to improve their production in a competitive market vis a vis cost effective strategies with the ultimate goal of improving customer satisfaction. See Mangahas and Leyesa 2003. “Improving Government Administration through TQM” and Mariano “TQM and Philippine Local Government Units. ” in Introduction to Public Administration: A Reader. 19 11 New Sub-fields of Public Administration As the field evolved, and in response to the changing demands of the time, new sub-fields emerged.

These included the following: Policy Analysis and Program Administration The post-war years saw the emergence of public policy as a subfield of public administration. In the US, interest in policy studies started in 1950s. In the Philippines, however, it started not to long ago, in 1970s in the then Institute of Public Administration in the University of the Philippines. Generally, policy studies can focus on the content of public policy, its processes, models, theories and approaches of public policy its impact as well as evaluation of public programs and projects. Other significant concepts, principles and techniques for systematic analysis and decision – making in public policy and management are also considered in policy analysis.

Dye (1995) said that certain theoretical approaches and models have been introduced in studying public policy which include institutional, process, group, elite, rational, incremental, game theory, public choice and systems model. Public Enterprise Management Privatization is one of the foci of this area of public administration. Other topics include the nature and processes of public enterprises; the relationship between the government and the public enterprise sector; issues on managerial autonomy, public accountability, corporate social responsibility and the role of the state in the economy. In the graduate level, courses include financial management of public enterprise and management of public enterprises. Voluntary Sector Management Voluntary Sector Management is another emerging field of Public Administration.

In recognition of the growing voluntary sector in the Philippines, UP NCPAG has pioneered in offering Voluntary Sector Management (VSM) as a field of specialization. This field has developed expertise through the years through its institutional linkage with UP Pahinungod with Dr. Ledivina Carino as its founding director. Voluntary sector management can be referred to similar terms such as “voluntary sector, “third sector”, “non-profit organizations,” “non-governmental organizations,” and “civil society organizations. ” Spatial Information Management In delivering public goods and services efficiently and effectively, it is very important that we will be aided with support tools enabling the use of all kinds of spatial data/information.

With the study and utilization of geographic information system (GIS), data/information can be processed immediately and can be transported easily. This technology is currently used by many government agencies and corporations; thus the introduction and popularization of some technology terms in government such as e-government, e-commerce, geo-visualization, e-finance, among others. Other systems are also introduced in SIM like global positioning systems and remote sensing. Public administration indeed has evolved both as a scholarly discipline and as a profession. It has reached wider dimensions of governance, from political, economic, social, cultural aspects of public management.

In the executive branch, for instance, it has retained traditional functions such as O and M (management functions like planning, organizing) and personnel management but explored possibilities in organizational development, fiscal administration (budgeting, accounting, auditing) and public policy and program administration which is concerned with the processes and analysis of public policy. IV. MAJOR CONCERNS IN PHILIPPINE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PRAXIS: REORGANIZATION DECENTRALIZATION AND CORRUPTION The praxis of Philippine public administration has always included three major areas of concerns. These are: reorganization, decentralization and the ever present challenge of addressing 12 corruption and promoting accountability in government. 0 This section discusses each of these areas and thrusts. Reorganizing the Bureaucracy The praxis of public administration in the Philippines has always been rooted in the imperative for reform. This following discusses two major targets of reform over the years. These are the civil service and the local governments. More specifically, Philippine public administration has always seen reorganization as central to the entire initiative in the continuing search and design for more responsive structures and process. Indeed, among the initial initiatives of any president – from Roxas in the 40’s to Arroyo in 2002, upon assumption to office, is the declaration to reorganize the bureaucracy.

The first decree (Presidential Decree No 1) enacted by Marcos upon the declaration of martial law was the Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP). It “promised the most extensive and wrenching effort at administrative reform in the country’s history through decentralizing and reducing the bureaucracy, and standardizing departmental organization. The IRP also sought to introduce structural changes and reforms to strengthen the merit system as well as professionalize the civil service system. “(ADB 2005: 11) Endriga (2001) described the bureaucracy under the Marcos administration as being more subservient than at any other time in Philippine history.

The government then was restructured according to the will of Marcos and it has been shielded from public scrutiny and criticism; thus the perpetuation of irresponsible acts. To restore government integrity and public confidence, reorganization reforms were introduced by President Aquino, essentially with the creation of Presidential Commission on Public Ethics and Accountability and the Presidential Commission on Good Governance (PCGG). Civil society organizations (CSOs) became more active in participating in decision-making and program implementation of the government. To downsize the bloated government, one of the steps undertaken by her administration was the removal of thousands of civil servants from their positions.

Although the said step was justified, ironically, the number of civil servants and political appointees in the government increased; thus, blurring the principles of merit and fitness of the civil service. Moreover, pubic agencies and offices grew which caused the extended and fragmented government structure. (ADB 2005) Reorganization efforts were minimal during the tenures of Ramos and Estrada. Ramos simply focused on the praxis of NPM with the end goal of reengineering the bureaucracy. His flagship program, the Philippines 2000, was envisioned to make the country globally competitive by pursuing the thrusts of deregulation, market liberalization, and privatization.

He focused on setting the guiding principles in reorganizing and improving government operations, divesting government-owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs), promoting decentralization and local governance, and pushing on the attrition law. The reengineering plan, however, remained a plan with the Congress not laying down the legal framework for his aspiration of streamlining the bureaucracy. Under Estrada administration, the Rationalization Program of 2001 through Presidential Committee on Effective Governance (PCEG) was introduced. Executive Order No. 165 or “Directing the Formulation of an Institutional Strengthening and Streamlining Program for the Executive Branch,” laid down the “Re-Engineering the Bureaucracy for Better Governance Program. The program aims to strengthen and streamline the bureaucracy particularly the executive branch, the GOCCs, and the state universities and colleges (SUCs). What prompted the government in pushing for the rationalization program despite some criticisms and even cynicisms particularly from the skeptics? David offered four reasons: first, to make the government do the right things (efficiency); second, to do the things in the right or best way (effectiveness); third, to be able to do the right things in the right way within affordable levels (affordability); and fourth, to be able to achieve these in the most accountable, transparent manner as possible (accountability). These served as the four guiding principles of the Rationalization Program.

David further expounds on these principles and said that effectiveness means that there is a need to focus on government efforts on its vital and core functions. This is indeed a good strategy to achieve medium-term strategies and to avoid expenditures and time to those functions that the government There are of course other targets of reform as far as the overall goal to promote better and more responsive structures of government are concerned. These include the judiciary and the congress. 20 13 should not enter into. Efficiency is achieved through answering the question: “What do we want to do? ” Through the methods of rationalization of service delivery support systems, organizational structure, and right staffing; the government then could provide an individual agency performance.

The principle of affordability states that expenditures must be based on allowable existing resources. Therefore, the necessary rationalization will have to go together with the kind of economic situation the government agencies are in, with consideration on how much they can afford. To assure accountability, the method of reporting that should be practiced by the government must be clear, observable and verifiable. (DGF 2005) On the part of the CSC, its mandate can only be fully realized once the elected officials learn to respect the bureaucracy and recognize that a professional core of public servants is a major partner in good governance. It must be noted that ordinary civil servants are still nation-builders.

David adds that notwithstanding the fiscal crisis the country is now facing, the program still has to be pursued because there is really a need to “rationalize how the government funds itself, and how government gets its job done. ” (DGF 2005: 11) After all, the budget we use to support government’s operation comes from the taxpayers and this has to be complemented by an efficient, effective, affordable and accountable service from the civil servants. The Macapagal-Arroyo administration continued the program to streamline the bureaucracy, but as yet has no overall agenda for reform. In the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) 2001-2004, the present administration had adopted the “Reengineering the Bureaucracy for Better Governance Program” of the Estrada administration. PCEG was likewise reactivated upon the Arroyo’s assumption to office.

It serves as the ad-hoc body that shall be the focal point of administrative reforms in the civil service. In October 4, 2004, the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) and the Civil Service Commission (CSC) pursued the Rationalization Program as mandated in EO 366. According to DBM, EO 366 directs all departments/agencies of the executive branch to conduct a strategic review of their operations and organizations for purposes of focusing government purposes on its vital functions and channeling government resources to these core public functions, and improving the efficiency of government services, within affordable levels, and in the most accountable manner. (See table 3 for the status of the rationalization program as of April 2008).

DBM’s task, according to David (as cited in DGF 2005), is to look at a two-track approach in ensuring the effective delivery of government service. The first track of reengineering the bureaucracy is through legislative measures and the second track is the administrative rationalization of the government. The Rationalization Program The table below shows that four years after the implementation of EO 366, only 17 out of 26 department agencies of the government, 27 OEOS/other government agencies, and only 36 out of more than 100 GOCCs in the country have submitted their rationalization plans. Out of the 80 submitted rational plans, only two department-level offices and nine GOCCs were approved; three departments have been evaluated but were not yet approved.

Out of the 44 plans, (complete and partial submission) that are under evaluation, eight departments and 19 GOCCs have completed their submission while three departments and four from the GOCCs have made partial submission. Moreover, there were plans returned for revision; one from the department and four from the GOCCs. DBM is expecting submissions from three departments and 24 GOCCs. Table 3. Overall Status of the Implementation of the Rationalization Program ((Net of Entities Exempted), As of 30 April 2008) Status A. Plans Submitted to DBM 1. Approved 1. 1 att

Organized Retail (Spencer’s) vs Kirana Store

Assignment 2 Organized Retail (Spencer’s) Vs. Kirana Store Indian Retail Market India is the only one country having the highest shop density in the world, with 11 outlets per 1000 people (12 million retail shops for about 209 million households). Rather we can see the democratic scenario in Indian Retail (because of low level of centralization, low capital input and due to a good number of self organized retail).

Indian retail is dominated by a large number of small retailers consisting of the local kirana shops, owner-manned general stores, chemists, footwear shops, apparel shops, paan and beedi shops, hand-cart hawkers, pavement vendors, etc. which together make up the so-called “unorganized retail” or traditional retail. 5 The last 3-4 years have witnessed the entry of a number of organized retailers6 opening stores in various modern formats in metros and other important cities. Still, the overall share of organized retailing in total retail business has remained low.

Nevertheless, the macroeconomic landscape indicates that the domestic retail industry has immense scope for the modern as well as traditional retailers to co-exist. Through a balanced regulatory framework and competition policy, both the traditional format and the modern format can continue to grow, eventually closing the gap between the organized and unorganized sectors. Organized retailing will: (i) promote quality employment; (ii) improve business process practices; (iii) spur investments in support industries; and (iv) enable the modernization of the fragmented traditional retail industry.

Modern retail business focuses on maximizing customer footfalls and capturing rising volume and share of the customer wallet. While the competition strategy is largely price focused, the model works by: (i) improving sourcing efficiencies; (ii) expanding product assortment; (iii) differentiating service; and (iv) enhancing the store ambience. Thus, there are four drivers of modern retail’s “one-stop shopping model”: price, product, service, and ambience. Spencer’s Retailer Spencer’s differentiates itself on product quality, assortment of imported food products, and shopping experience.

Leveraging on the perception of high-quality imported goods that was attached to the old Spencer’s & Co. brand name, Spencer’s business strategy focuses on an array of food-related products and activities spanning across intercontinental and domestic culinary, and chef demonstrations. Spencer’s follows the “duck and duckling” (pyramidal) strategy for its retail expansion and cost benefits in back-end procurement; it has a small set of destination stores (Spencer’s hyper), followed by the supermarket format (Spencer’s Daily), and a larger set of convenient store format (Spencer’s Express and Fresh) located close to the local neighbourhood.

The company incorporates the cluster approach in its “hub-and-spoke” business model to gain economies of scale in sourcing, logistics, and promotional activities around its multiple retail formats. Each state is more or less regarded as a cluster consisting of a small set of hyper, in between supermarket format stores, and a larger set of express stores. The spread of stores serves as spokes to a single distribution centre, the hub. Each hub also functions as a central point to a number of repackaging centres, and collection centres in the cluster region.

Spencer’s Retailer vs. Kirana Stores A typical outlet of Spencer’s is about 5600 sq ft providing employment to average 23 people per retail outlet. The annual sale per square ft is around Rs. 7700. If this numbers are compared with the Kirana stores (unorganized retail outlet) the shop is of size appr. 500 sq ft, run by 2-4 people and annual sale per square is not more than Rs. 1000. The two retail outlet can be compared on four parameters: price, product, service, and ambience. Product Spencer’s & Co brand name, Spencer’s differentiates on high-quality food assortment.

Overall, across all formats, 30 per cent of the food is speciality food, other 30 per cent is imported food products, and the rest is regular domestic food. In the hypermarket segment, 45 per cent of the merchandize is equally distributed across garments, electronic goods, and other white goods. The rest 55 per cent consist of FMCG, staples, and fruit and vegetables. On the other hand, an average Spencer’s Daily store contains a higher share of FMCG products, staples, fruit and vegetables, and some general merchandize.

An Express store consists of fruit and vegetables, bakery and chilled and dairy products. However, the Spencer’s Express product mix differentiates from the regular kirana stores because it is a mixture of imported, intercontinental, and domestic food products. In order to expand on the assortment of food products under the Spencer’s banner in hyper and superstore formats, the Spencer’s strategy includes concessionaire contracts with food chains known in their respective region, Spencer’s has also tied up with “Life Skill” to roll out pharmaceutical products across Spencer’s hyper stores in the south.

Although Spencer’s has a separate subsidiary Cellucom for mobile phone retailing, however, the hypermarket format contains around 5 per cent mobile phones. Spencer’s keeps a mix of private and branded labels in the FMCG, staples, and clothing in its hypermarket. On the other hand local Kirana stores generally don’t enter into a legal contract though they also get the product from the nearby region. This relation is more at personal level than at professional level. Price Considering its focus on food products, where margins are low, Spencer’s pricing across multiple food products is similar to the price available in the market.

But, Spencer’s attempts to capitalize on the purchase of the balance 10 per cent of differentiated imported and speciality food products of its customer basket. Additionally, the company is also building its positioning to maximize its margin on differentiated general merchandize products in the electronics, plastic goods, and ceramic product categories. In the case of fresh food and vegetables, pricing is standardized daily based on the APMC market pricing. Spencer’s gains around 10-15 per cent margin on fruit and vegetables.

In FMCG products, the gain is generally between 18 per cent and 20 per cent. In the hypermarket format, branded FMCG products are sold at 15-18 per cent margin because FMCG products are discounted nearly 2-3 per cent lower than the MRP price. In staples, private labels are priced between 5 per cent and 10 per cent cheaper than the branded labels. In the case of private label clothing, the maximum gain is around 50-60 per cent, but private labels are priced around 20-30 per cent lower than the branded labels which have an overall 30 per cent margin.

Kirana stores generally don’t offer any discount on the product, they sell it at MRP. Services The main different between the two is Spencer’s never give credit to it customer, while it is a very common practice for Kirana Stores. Apart from that generally the Kirana Store retailer has the bonding with the near by customer, he understand their needs much better that the organized retailer understand their customer. Though organized retailer has all the system in place to provide best service and solve customer grievances, unorganized can do it better because of long term relationship with customer.

Ambience Organized retailers have comparatively much better ambience than unorganized. Particularly for Spencer’s, separate spaces are sold to external brands and products are placed on shelves by keeping their popularity and publicity in mind. Competing brands are kept side by side. SKUs that are bought on a regular basis are kept on the right hand side, the reason being that most people are right handed and the eye movement goes from right to left. Fruit and vegetables are kept in the first part of the store because of its volume and to attract customers.

Reasons that Kirana Store Survive 1. In smaller towns and urban areas, there are many families who are traditionally using these kirana stores offering a wide range of merchandise mix. Generally these kirana shops are the family business of these small retailers which they are running for more than one generation. 2. These kiran shops are having their own efficient management system (like better understanding of customer need) and with this they are efficiently fulfilling the needs of the customer.

This is one of the good reasons why the customer doesn’t want to change their old loyal kirana shop. 3. A large number of working class in India is working as daily wage basis, at the end of the day when they get their wage, they come to this small retail shop to purchase wheat flour, rice etc for their supper. For them this the only place to have those food items because purchase quantity is so small that no big retail store would entertain this. 4. Similarly there is another consumer class who are the seasonal worker.

During their unemployment period they use to purchase from this kirana store in credit and when they get their salary they clear their dues. Now this type of credit facility is not available in corporate retail store, so this kirana stores are the only place for them to fulfill their needs. 5. Another reason might be the proximity of the store. It is the convenience store for the customer. In every corner the street an unorganized retail shop can be found that is hardly a walking distance from the customer’s house.

Many times customers prefer to shop from the nearby kirana shop rather than to drive a long distance organized retail stores. 6. This unorganized stores are having number of opportunities to cut their costs. They incur little to no real-estate costs because they generally operate from their residences. Their labour cost is also low because the family members work in the store. Also they use cheap child labour at very low rates. As they are operating from their home so they can pay for their utilities at residential rates.

The Impact of Social Networking Sites in the Identity Formation

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION During the old days when teens spent hours alone in their rooms or with close friends dancing in front of the mirror, playing outside their houses, trying different outfits and modeling around the corner; trying on different personas in person is out, the web deletes the middle man. Now, there are a variety of online social media applications to enable communication between adolescents. Due to the ego-centric nature of these applications, social networking sites allow adolescents to extend their true personalities to the online world while also adding onto them.

The impersonal nature of communicating from behind a computer screen can allow adolescents to create a completely new and unrestrained personality that they would never show in real life. Personal web pages give teens the control to present themselves in whatever way they choose to an actual audience that’s also controllable and far less intimidating than showing up in person to try out a new possible identity (Schmitt et al. , 2008).

The Internet has quickly become the most expeditious, central means of communication and access to information so it makes perfect sense that this trend in media would trickle down to impact the lives of youth everywhere. There are numerous reasons why the internet has become the chosen means by which adolescents discover their identity. Adolescents find that the internet and social personal web pages offer them a safe place to try on different ‘hats’ or try out new personalities without the fear of rejection or embarrassment and the normal risks associated with real life trials of the same magnitude (Schmitt et al. 2008). The internet, especially sites like Facebook offer prominent places for youth to put themselves out there in a textural/multimedia forum for others to see. Subsequently, adolescents are able to garner an audience of as many or as few as they feel comfortable with and also gain access to other teens with whom they would never regularly have any interaction with.

They can also experience self disclosure effects via revealing personal information about themselves to others which can lead to deep interpersonal relationships forming online with varying degrees of intimacy, which maybe they have not done yet in the real world because they don’t feel comfortable (Schmitt et al. , 2008). Adolescent personal web pages are focused solely on self presentation, effectively allowing the adolescent to tell others who they are (and sometimes give cues about who they want to be) through the content on their page.

The ambiguity and sense of decreased inhibition on the web allows youth to feel like they are less likely to experience inhibitions that one faces in the real world and more likely to experience the desirable sensation of being known by other people, which becomes increasingly important to youth during this stage in their development (Schmitt et al. , 2008). The web has a feeling of safety and privacy for many adolescents, especially if they have access to a computer in their bedroom with unrestricted access so it makes for the perfect situation for them to explore themselves through online presentation.

Ironically, the reasons behind adolescent use of social networking sites and personal web pages closely parallel the reasons why adults use the very same social media to delve deeper into their true, idealized, and various other selves (Schmitt et al. , 2008). Online social networking sites specifically Facebook, had become widespread and popular among many, especially adolescents. It becomes clear that social networking sites allow adolescents to speak freely and to reveal their desired personalities, in addition to the rare moments of truth.

The computer screen acts as a shield for adolescents who see that they can say whatever they want. Although myths about online identities exist, adolescents rarely think about the consequences of their online actions. Online social networks, then, allow adolescents to create personal profiles and participate in interactions with others who are also part of the world around them. They do not realize that what they say lacks privacy and that their online profiles create a particular perception of them.

Social networking sites can hinder adolescent identity formation because they allow adolescents to exaggerate their personalities to form a new identity and force them to find a balance between their true and desired personalities. In the field of Psychology, Sociology, and Communication, social interactions are essential in our understanding of the human development and advancement of technology. A new forum, which is available for all ages, often take place in the Internet, specifically Facebook, which offers selection of social interactions, sharing of thoughts, entertainment, beliefs in the form of symbolic meanings and etc.

This new aspect of communication has spurred numerous studies in which “researchers are scrambling to understand the phenomenon almost as quickly as the technology advances” (Williams and Merten, 2008). With the number of individual engaging in social interactions via internet, there is a need for further researches to comprehend us with the impact of online social networks on social and self identity of an adolescent. Social interaction is a negotiation of identities between people in a given environment. One’s identity is comprised of both a personal internal identity and a public social identity.

As people engage socially, they project aspects of their internal identity into a social identity for others to perceive. Based on the situation, people only present a particular facet of their internal identity for consideration. Depending on their own need to self-monitor, an individual manages what is to be seen dependent on the environment, thereby creating a social performance where they offer different faces to convey different facets of their identity. The goal of such monitoring is to manage the impressions that others might perceive, to convey the appropriate information at the appropriate time.

In order to assess what is appropriate, people draw from situational and interpersonal contextual cues. By understanding the social implication of context cues and perceiving the reactions presented by others, an individual is given social feedback to adjust their behavior to fit the situation in the hopes of being perceived in the desired light. As people engage socially, they are continually drawing from their own experiences to perceive others and the environment and presenting aspects of their identity that they deem appropriate to the situation.

Yet, this negotiation occurs with little conscious effort. Online social interaction is not as simple. The underlying architecture of the online environment does not provide the forms of feedback and context to which people have become accustomed. The lack of embodiment makes it difficult to present one’s self and to perceive the presentation of others. As people operate through digital agents, they are forced to articulate their performance in new ways.

According to Eriksonian principles, adolescents need to explore and experiment with the world around them in order to understand the self in relation to that world. Successful identity formation depends on an individual’s ability to resolve issues involving relationships, popular culture, religion, political views, education, sexuality, substance abuse, rebellion, and career choices (Arledge, 2008). Waterman furthers Erikson and Marcia’s Ego Identity Status by focusing on the lasting and essential benefits of self-expression and creativity as additional components of identity formation and emotional well being.

Keeping these needs in mind and the fact that over half of teens interact online, one cannot negate or ignore the significance of online social networks on adolescent identity formation. The Internet provides an unrestricted laboratory setting for adolescent identity experimentation as they seek to understand how they fit into the world around them (Arledge, 2008). Personal web pages, particularly social networking sites are not only becoming a more popular means of identity construction among adolescents, but they’re very functional too.

Self disclosure is equally important to identity formation and the web is an easy way to present such information to others in a way that they feel more comfortable with and this can facilitate and deepen interpersonal relationships among peers. It was reported that the study of Lenhart and Fox done in 2006 utters: individuals participate on blogs and/or online social networks because they want to express themselves and interact with other people. Both of these reasons can be subject to affect the adolescent on the midst of identity crises, established experimentation and investigation.

Online social networks, then, allow adolescents to create personal profiles and participate in interactions with others who are also part of the world around them. Forums, where starting topics develop; it can be a way of expressing opinions about certain topics that allows self-expression and ownership of ideas. These online social networkings are instrumental components of the process of adolescent identity formation. Its potential impact of online social networking on adolescents should not be underrated. Adolescents face major challenges and changes that must be resolve and clarify.

Conversing about topics that are modern or “popular” can provide a starting point for conversations between teens, and expressing opinions about these topics allows for self-expression and ownership of ideas. Online social networkings are instrumental components of the process of adolescent identity formation. “As adolescents explore their identity, they will go through behavioral patterns that on the surface may appear to be cause for concern, but are actually developmentally appropriate and healthy” (Williams and Merten 2008, p. 257).

The potential impact of online social networking on adolescents should also not be underrated or ignored. Adolescents face significant challenges that have to be resolved during adolescence, and studies cited in the following literature review demonstrate that teens need to experiment with ideologies, engage in self-expression, interact socially with peers, and participate in some venues without parental presence. In addition, the research covered in the literature review defines the role of popular culture and online social networking as integral parts of the adolescent’s experience.

Because of these ideas regarding with the online social networks that can be an active agent in the identity formation of the adolescents, the researchers came up with a pioneering qualitative research regarding with this topic. The researchers wanted to explore different aspects and factors that might have an influence to the identity of adolescents concerning their active participation in an online social network like Facebook through this research study. In particular, we will emphasize the call for self-expression and self-presentation. By being aware of their behavior, individuals are able to monitor their own presentation.

Likewise, by having the tools to control what aspects of their identity are presented, people can more appropriately organize their presentation. Awareness and control can provide some of the missing feedback that inhibits certain types of social interaction. Our goal in this research study is to reflect on the existing forms of social interaction and process such as self-expression and self-presentation, so as to offer suggestions for the formation of identity with the help the process mentioned above and the presence of social networking sites.

This research will also present a solid overview of the process that is in progress in adolescent, as has also their significance within networking sites. This will be the start of continuous research for the rapid changing field and the implications of increasing advancement of technology, communication and interactions. As mentioned above, social networking sites today are an important factor in shaping the identity of a young individual’s identity.

This study also contributes to the current body of research that supports the view that online social interaction is actually beneficial to psychological and sociological development. Statement of the Problem This research study aimed to determine the online social network as an active agent in the identity formation of the selected adolescents in Letran-Calamba S. Y. 2010-2011. Specifically, this study intended to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors that trigger the selected adolescent of Letran-Calamba S. Y. 2010-2011 to create their personal account on facebook? . How does self-expression and self-presentation influence the self identity of the selected adolescent? 3. How does self-expression and self-presentation influence the social identity of the selected adolescent? 4. How does self identity and social identity take part in the identity formation of the selected adolescent? 5. What is the role of social networking sites in the identity formation of the selected adolescent? 6. What is the impact of social networking sites in the identity formation of selected adolescent? Theoretical Framework

The researchers derive their theoretical framework based on the following theories: The first basis of this study is the popular developmental theory of Erik Erikson which is the psychosocial theory wherein each stage of human development presents its characteristic crises. Coping well with each crisis makes an individual better prepared to cope with the next. Although specific crises are most critical during particular stages, related issues continue to arise throughout a person’s life. The stage included in this study is the fifth stage, identity versus role confusion.

The fifth phase is the period of adolescence, which inevitably also contains the crisis of adolescence. At this stage, the individual begins for the first time to create identities in relation to the wider social environment and not only in relation to the immediate family circle. In interaction with his peers he is seeking confirmation of his own individual identity, and thus differentiating from family identity and seeks his own expression. He begins to place himself inside social functioning, in which he is imposed by an increasing responsibility to being assigned with social roles. A positive solution of the crisis requires from the individual that he excepts himself, his whole psychophysical personality, but also acceptance of other people, recognition for his actions and support in his efforts to integrate to society”. The success of every crisis resolving, therefore, depends on the success of solving the previous crises, which means that it is very important in which kind of a family environment he is growing up, as this provides him with a base for further social inclusions. The theory of Harry Stack Sullivan makes an impact to this study.

He emphasized the importance of relationship and communication for teenagers. His theory explains the principal forces of human development as being social instead of biological. His social theory is enlightening when used to examine adolescent development and the impact on individual of peer groups, friendships, peer pressure, and intimacy in essence, Sullivan states that positive peer relationship, during adolescence are essential for healthy development, and that negative peer relationships will lead to unhealthy development, such as depression, eating disorders, drug abuse, delinquency, or criminal behavior.

Based on James E. Marcia’s Identity Statuses, it is important to distinguish between crisis and commitment in identity development. Crisis is a period of identity development during which the adolescent is choosing among meaningful alternatives. Most researchers now use the term exploration rather than crisis, although, in the spirit of Marcia’s original formulation, we will use the term crisis. Commitment is defined as the part of identity development in which adolescents show a personal investment in what they are going to do (Santrock, 2006).

He classified an individual’s extent of crisis and commitment into four identity statuses: Identity Achievement or adolescents with developed identity are those who have successfully resolved their identity crisis; Identity Foreclosure or adolescents with an adopted identity do not resolve their identity crisis through their own exploration of them self, but adopt the means to do so from significant others, mainly parents; Identity Moratorium or adolescents in moratorium stage are still resolving their identity crisis through research (in this context, they are the opposite of adolescents with an adopted identity); and Adolescents with identity diffusion are those individuals who were not able to explore the end of their potential, and do therefore withdraw to solitude, or give them self up. Alan S. Waterman added a component of James Marcia which seems vital in today’s fast paced world of computers and popular culture. Waterman argued that personal expression actually increased the solidity of identity formation, ego identity, and psychological well being and argues that “personal expressiveness” should be an additional dimension to Marcia’s identity statuses, which is based on the theory of Alan Waterman.

Building on the idea of intrinsic motivation and the Greek concept of eudemonism, recognizing and living by values in accordance with the “true self,” Waterman proposes that these components of personal expression will actually increase psychological health and well being. Applying Waterman’s theory of the adolescent need for personal expressiveness as part of identity formation supports the research that examines the ways in which online social networks within the context of popular culture are different from passive mediums such as television or films. Individuals observe elements of culture around them and then respond, which is a way of exploring and identifying with others who share similar ideals. Expression of these ideas is also what actually creates a culture.

In contrast, being unable to express an opinion or idea to another person or group stifles the exploration process necessary for healthy, normal identity formation which is essential for psychological well-being later in life (Arledge, 2008). For George Herbert Mead, identity is a continuous process that is taking place when the individual is placing himself within group operations with symbolic exchange. As such, it is not static, but the expression of purely subjective instances or objective, social impacts. It is the synergy of the two components, the social self or Me, which is defined by the ability of accustoming to other people, and the personal self or I, which is inaccessible to social determination and social control.

The latter is the answer to the first, thus to the then socially mediated idea of the role of the individual in the eyes of others. The reflexive consciousness (Mind) is the one that allows the individual to evaluate his own actions, and the impact of the acts of others to the individual, in a knowingly and reflexive manner (Meden, 2009). On the other hand, Social Capital Theory point out the importance of social capital for the ability of individuals from different social groups to attain positive development. This conceptualization of context stresses the importance of looking at sociological factors external to the individual (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002) s the stratification of society may cause unequal distribution of developmental assets thus enhancing or constraining development (Schachter & Ventura, 2008). While according to Erving Goffman’s “dramaturgical approach” or “theater analogy” that explains impression management, he compares it with a theater with actors that present themselves to others. In everyday life, people also make self-presentations. Instead of following a script, however, people decide by themselves how to perform in a front stage area for a particular audience. Then people withdraw backstage, where they can put aside their onstage role, check their appearance, and reapply make-up.

Impression management and Goffman’s theater analogy also seem to apply to social networking profiles. People think about their identities. For example, I think of myself as a photographer. Then people think about others with similar identities. For example, I would consider how photographers present themselves in public. Then people create a profile to present their identity to others (Kenney, 2009). Conceptual Framework The researchers use the conceptual framework as the basis of their study. Facebook as a sample of well-known social network sites can be an active agent in the identity formation of adolescents. Adolescents may express and present themselves in different manner they liked.

Through their self-expression and self-presentation in the their account in Facebook it is two of the many ways adolescents can establish their identity, particularly in their self and to other people, wherein the social identity can have an influence to their self-identity vice versa and that can have impact on the identity formation of the adolescents. Figure 1. The Impact of social networking sites in the identity formation of selected adolescents of Colegio de San Juan de Letran-Calamba A. Y. 2010-2011 Significance of the Study The outcome of the study will be relevant to the respondents, parents, researchers, psychology students, Colegio and the future researchers. The research will be beneficial for the respondents to gain awareness about their Identities, on how online social network influences their self and social identities. The study will also be a guide on what to improve unto self identity and social identity.

To the parents, that the study will give them idea about the impact of Online Social Network on the identity formation of their child, so that they may guide them to allow or not their child to frequently visit the social network site. This will also explain significant behavior, changes, relationships and personality of the child. To the youth, who are the most dominating members who’s joining the most popular social network, the study can assist them up to what extent they can go on exploring themselves through interacting with online social network. To provide them sufficient information about the implication of such to their growth as well as the other factors affecting their identity formation.

To the researchers, so that they will be able to gain understanding about the whole process of conducting their study and may relate and give additional knowledge that they can apply to their professions. The study will also provide them satisfaction and fulfilment, that they can contribute such study to their progress and acquaintances. To the Psychology students, that the study will provide value of the existence of the program. The study will also provide inspiration to create further spectacular studies to assist mankind. This study will also elevate the standards of excellence towards researches done under the Psychology division. To the Colegio de San Juan de Letran Calamba, the study will contribute to the increasing number of studies used for expansion of knowledge of the students and will be a self-righteous product of the Colegio.

The future researchers will also benefit in this study, this will equip them with various data that will support their on-going studies and furthermore, to confer idea to conduct future studies related to this topic. This can be used as future reference and guide for them. Objective of the Study This research study aimed to achieve the following: 1. To discover the contributing factors that made the respondents join social networking sites. 2. To find out the influence of self-expression and self-presentation on the self identity. 3. To find out the influence of self-expression and self-presentation on the social identity. 4. To verify the connection of social identity and self identity on the identity formation. 5. To present the role of social networking sites on the identity formation of adolescent. 6.

To determine the impact of social networking sites on the identity formation of adolescent. Scope and Limitation This study focuses on the meaning, values, impact, importance and risks of social networking sites in the adolescents today. Tackles new development and future trends set by the social networking sites. This study is limited to the students ages 12 – 18 years old and currently enrolled in Colegio de San Juan de Letran-Calamba A. Y. 2010-2011. Self-presentation and self-expression will be taken into account in identifying the impact on the identity formation of selected respondents in active participation with social networking sites, specifically Facebook.

Since the Facebook catches the attention of the adolescents, the researchers choose to focus only to Facebook site for the reason that it is the top most viewed social networking site here in the Philippines and other countries. Definition of Terms The following are the different terms used to modify the Impact of Social Networking Sites in Identity Formation of the selected adolescents of Letran-Calamba A. Y. 2010-2011 and to help the readers undertand this study: Adolescent. Based on the developmental life-span of Erik Erikson. The teenage- stage of an individual, ages 12(Twelve) to 18 (Eighteen). Facebook. Considers the world’s largest social network, with over 500 million users.

Used for activities like entertainment, Instant Messaging, blogging and where the users have the freedom of expression regarding creating and manipulating the visual background and spatial adjustment of information boxes. Identity. Conceptualized as an internalized, self-selected regulatory system that represents an organized and integrated psychic structure that requires the developmental distinction between the inner self and outer social world. Identity Formation. A personal continuity and uniqueness from others. It is the phase where in physical growth, sexual maturation and impending career choices take place. Impact. Have an effect upon and can also be defined as influencing strongly impression of one thing on another. The power of making a strong and immediate impression. (free dictionary by Farlex) Personal Identity.

It is the off line or the real identity of an individual. It is constituted by the ability to sustain a narrative about the self. This includes the capacity to build up a consistent feeling of biographical continuity. Self-expression. Expression of one’s own personality, feelings, or ideas, as through speech or art. (American heritage by Houghton Mifflin company). Self-presentation. Presenting or displaying one’s self in ways to create a particular definition of the situation. This presentation may include verbal messages as well as gestures, clothing, style, hairstyle, posture, etc. (Goffman) Social Identity. It is the online identity. It is the self that is shown to other people.

This is the part of ourselves that we use to create an impression, to let other people know who we are and what they can expect from us. Social Networking Sites (SNS). Also termed as Online Social Network is a web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter presents the review of literature and studies as key concepts which are the variables themselves are being investigated. This includes the discussion of literature and studies undertaken by both foreign nd local researchers which have significant bearing on the variables included in the study. Social Networking Sites The researchers define social network sites as web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site (Baloncio, 2009). For many people, the internet is increasingly “a social ecology involving other people, values, norms and social contexts” (Petric, 2006).

Through networked computers, people communicate with their social contacts through multiple mechanisms, some synchronous (instant messaging and chat) and some asynchronous (e-mail). Furthermore, people often create self-presentations, such as personal home pages (Elbanbuena, 2009). What makes social network sites unique is not that they allow individuals to meet strangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks. This can result in connection between individuals that would not otherwise be made, but that is often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between “latent ties” (Haythornthwaite, 2005) who share some offline connection.

On many of the large social network sites, participants are not necessarily “networking” or looking to meet new people; instead, they are primarily communicating with people who are already a part of their extended social network (Baloncio, 2009). When a computer network connects people or organizations, it is a social network. Just as a computer network is a set of machines connected by a set of cables, a social network is a set of people (or organizations or other social entities) connected by a set of social relationships, such as friendship, co-working or information exchange. More researches into how people use computers have concentrated on how individual users interface with their internet, how two persons interact online, or how small groups function online. Social networking seek to describe networks of elations as fully as possible, tease out the prominent patterns in such networks, trace the flow of information (and other resources) through them, and discover what effects these relations and networks have on people and organizations. They use a variety of techniques to discover a network’s densely-knit clusters and to look for similar role relations. When social networking studies two-person ties, they interpret their functioning in the light of the two persons’ relations with other network members. This is a quite different approach than the standard networking assumption that relations can be studied as totally separate units of analysis. “To discover how A, who is in touch with B and C, is affected by the relation between B and C . . . demands the use of the (social) network concept”. There are times when the social network itself is the focus of attention.

If we term network members characteristics and change, then each tie not only giving direct access to their characteristics but also indirect access to all those network members to whom they are connected. Indirect ties link in compound relations (e. g. , friend of a friend) that fit network members into larger social systems. The social network approach facilitates the study of how information flows through direct and indirect network ties, how people acquire resources, and how alliances operate. Boyd and Ellison’s (2007) overview of social networking sites research serves as a good point of departure to examine current theoretical perspectives on the subject and to consider the implications for teaching and learning.

Firstly, they outline the core concept of identity, which refers to the way in which users develop their online profiles and list of friends to carry out four important community processes: 1. ) Impression management is concerned with personal identity formation, in which users define their own identities through the information they provide in their profile, and the extent to which they make it public or private in the community and thereby send out identity signals to others. 2. ) Friendship management is linked to impression management in that users use publicly displayed profiles of others to choose who they would like to include as friends on their list, that is, they look at the identity markers of other users as a benchmark for establishing levels of social interaction.

Network structure relates to the roles that users play in the social community in which they participate. Some users will be fairly passive and have a restricted personal network. Others will be active posters of information, and build up intricate networks of friends. Others will play an even greater role in actively promoting and developing the SNS as a whole, by setting up groups and communities and posting publicly available information to encourage interaction. Bridging of online and offline social networks, which is concerned with the degree to which the SNS becomes an integral part of the users’ actual life while offline (Harrison & Thomas, 2009).

Although a good deal of research has studied and investigated group interaction online, a group is only one kind of social network, one that is tightly-bound and densely-knit. Not all relations fit neatly into tightly-bounded solidarities. Indeed, limiting descriptions to groups and hierarchies oversimplifies the complex social networks that computer networks support. If Novell had not trademarked it already, it would more properly speak of “netware” and not “groupware” to describe the software, hardware, and “peopleware” combination that supports computer-mediated communication. Relations/Strands Relations (sometimes called strands) are characterized by content, direction and strength. The content of a relation refers to the resource that is exchanged.

Networking exchange different kinds of information, such as communication about administrative, personal, work- related or social matters. With the rise of electronic commerce (e. g. , Web-based order-entry systems, electronic banking), information exchanged via internet may also correspond to exchanges of money, goods or services in the “real” world. A relation can be directed or undirected. For example, one person may give social support to a second person. There are two relations here: giving support and receiving support. Alternately, people may share an undirected friendship relationship, i. e. , they both maintain the relationship and there is no specific direction to it.

However, while they both share friendship, the relationship may be unbalanced: a person may claim a close friendship and the other a weaker friendship, or communication may be initiated more frequently by a person than the other. Thus, while the relationship is shared, its expression may be asymmetrical. Relations also differ in strength. Such strength can be operationalized in a number of ways. With respect to communication, pairs may communicate throughout the work day, once a day, weekly or yearly. They may exchange large or small amounts of social capital: information money, goods, or services and etc. They may supply important or trivial information. Such aspects of relationships measure different types of relational strength.

The types of relations important in networking include the following: the exchange of complex or difficult information; emotional support; uncertain or equivocal communication; and communication to generate ideas, create consensus, support work, foster sociable relations; or support virtual community (http://jcmc. indiana. edu/vol3/issue1/garton. html, 28 June 2010). Ties A tie connects a person by one or more relations. Pairs may maintain a tie based on one relation only, e. g. , as members of the same organization, or they may maintain a multiplex tie, based on many relations, such as sharing information, giving financial support and attending conferences together. Thus ties also vary in content, direction and strength. Ties are often referred to as weak or strong, although the definition of what is weak or strong may vary in particular contexts.

Ties that are weak are generally infrequently maintained, non-intimate connections, for example, between co-workers who share no joint tasks or friendship relations. Strong ties include combinations of intimacy, self-disclosure, provision of reciprocal services, frequent contact, and kinship, as between close friends or colleagues. Both strong and weak ties play roles in resource exchange networks. Pairs who maintain strong ties are more likely to share what resources they have. However, what they have to share can be limited by the resources entering the networks to which they belong. Weakly-tied persons, while less likely to share resources, provide access to more diverse types of resources because each person operates in different social networks and has access to different resources.

The strength of weak ties has been explored in research suggesting that an electronic tie combined with an organizational tie is sufficient to allow the flow of information between people who may never have met face-to-face. Connectivity among previously unacquainted people is a well established finding in netwoking. Examples of this form of connectivity are documented in studies of large international organizations as well as in dispersed occupational communities such as oceanographers, “invisible colleges” of academics in the same field, and members of the computer underground (http://jcmc. indiana. edu/vol3/issue1/garton. html, 28 June 2010). Multiplexity The more relations (or strands) in a tie, the more multiplex (or multistranded) is the tie. Social networking has found that multiplex ties are more intimate, voluntary, supportive and durable.

Yet some people have feared that email, the Internet, and other reduced-cues that are unable to sustain broadly-based, multiplex relations. These fears are extended by the boutique approach to online offerings which fosters a specialization of ties within any one of thousands of topic-oriented news groups. However, this tendency toward specialization is counter-balanced by the ease of forwarding online communication to multiple others. Through personal distribution lists Internet participants can sustain broad, multiplex, supportive relationships. As yet, there has been little research into the extent to which specialized, online, single relations grow into multiplex ties over time (http://jcmc. indiana. edu/vol3/issue1/garton. html, 28 June 2010). Composition

A study of the composition of a relation or a tie is derived from the social attributes of both participants: for example, is the tie between different or same sex, between a supervisor and an underling or between peers. Networking tends to underplay the social cues of participants by focusing on the content of messages rather than on the attributes of senders and receivers. By reducing the impact of social cues, networking supports a wider range of participants and participation. Hence, networking increase involvement of spatially and organizationally peripheral persons in social networks (http://jcmc. indiana. edu/vol3/issue1/garton. html, 28 June 2010).

While social network sites have implemented a wide variety of technical features, their backbone consists of visible profiles that display an articulated list of friends who are also user of the system. Profiles are unique pages where one can “type oneself into being” (Baloncio, 2009 in Sunden, 2003). After joining social networking sites, an individual is asked to fill out forms containing a series of questions. The profile is generated using the answers to these questions, which typically include descriptors such as age, location, interests, and an “about me” section. Most sites also encourage users to upload a profile photo. Some sites allow users to add modules (“Applications”) that enhance their profile (Baloncio, 2009).

According to Boyd (2006) after joining a social network site, users are prompted to identify others in the system with which they have a relationship. The label for these relationships differs depending on the site- popular terms which include “Friends,” “Contacts,” and “Fans. ” Most social network sites require bi-directional confirmation for friendship, but some do not. These one-directional ties are sometimes labeled as “Fans” of “Followers,” but many sites call these “Friends” as well. The term “Friends” can be misleading, because the connection does not necessarily mean friendship in the everyday vernacular sense, and the reasons people connect are varied (Baloncio, 2009). The public display of connections is a crucial component of social network sites.

The friend list contains links to each friend’s profile, enabling viewers to traverse the network graph by clicking through the friend lists. On most sites, the list of friends is visible to anyone who is permitted to view the profile, although there are exceptions. Most social network sites also provide a mechanism for user to leave messages on their friends’ profiles. This feature typically involves leaving “comments,” although sites employ various labels for this feature. In addition, social network sites often have a private messaging and comments are popular on most of the major social network sites, they are not universally available (Baloncio, 2009).

Social network sites are often designed to be widely accessible, many attract homogeneous populations initially, so it is not uncommon to find groups using sites to segregate themselves by nationality, age, educational level, or other factors that typically segment society, even if what was not the intention of the designer. Online social network tools may be of particular utility for individuals who otherwise have difficulties forming and maintaining both strong and weak ties. Some research has shown, for example, that the internet might help individuals with low psychological well-being due to few ties to friends and neighbors. Some forms of computer-mediated communication can lower barriers to interaction and encourage more self-disclosure; hence, these tools may enable connections and interactions that would not otherwise occur.

For this reason, the study explore whether the relationship between Facebook use and social capital is different for individuals with varying degrees of self-esteem and satisfaction with life (Baloncio, 2009 referencing Deiner, Suh, & Oishi, 1997; Pavot & Deiner, 1993). Online social network sites may play a role different from virtual communities. Online interactions do not necessarily remove people from their offline world but may indeed be used to support relationships and keep people in contact, even when life changes move them away from each other. Lampe (2007) added in helping student populations, this use of technology could support a variety of populations, including professional researchers, neighborhood and community members, employees of companies, or others who benefit from maintained ties (Baloncio, 2009).

The communication tools emphasized on social networking sites provide a variety of means for which adolescents can share their thoughts and feelings. Few adolescents consider the consequences of their actions online. They equate instant messages to private telephone conversations, in which phrases and statements disappear immediately after they have been said. Because this is not the reality, adolescents think they can fully embody their online identities without ramifications. Your average teen would never plaster the halls of her school with signs declaring whom she’s got a huge crush on, how badly she flunked last week’s algebra test, or what she really thinks about her uncle’s drinking problem.

Yet that’s exactly what kids do when they open up and post about their personal lives online (qtd. in Tedeschi) (http://lcowie. wordpress. com/2010/04/29/social-medias-influence-on-adolescent-identity/, 01 August 2010). Many respondents spoke of the sense of isolation inherent in this medium and the lack of face to face contact as a contributing factor to feelings of alienation and loneliness (Alexandria, 2008 mentioning Wade, 1999). Likewise, on Alexandria (2008) perspective teens are truly living in broadband world – turning to the Internet as a tool for gathering information, providing entertainment, and as a means of establishing their identity and connecting to others.

According to a study, Two-thirds of teens have their own personal Web page, 71 percent have reached out to others through online games, and 34 percent have created their own videos to share online (Elbanbuena, 2009). In their examination of LiveJournal “friendship,” Fono and Raynes-Goldie (2006) described users’ understandings regarding public displays of connections and how the friendship function can operate as a catalyst for social drama. In listing user motivations for friendship, Boyd (2006) points out that “Friends” on social network sites are not the same as “friends” in the everyday sense; instead, Friends provide context by offering users an imagined audience to guide behavioral norms. Other work in this area has examined the use of Friendster Testimonials as self-presentational devices.

Boyd & Heer (2006) explain the extent to which the effectiveness of one’s Friends (as indicated by Facebook’s “Wall” feature) impacts impression formation (Elbanbuena, 2009). Furthermore, Arledge (2008) stated that it is also possible to just read other people’s comments without participating in any discussions, thus asking permission to view this information or to conduct and create surveys is extremely difficult and unnecessary because the Internet is considered “public domain” at this time. This sense of “public domain” in reference to online social interaction is unique because “it is not possible to record, wiretap, or otherwise capture these interactions in the physical world . . . without specific prior arrangement,” but in the realm of computer conversations where “electronic transmissions . . . re generally stored by Internet service providers, archived by search engines, and documented in cookies and Web histories by default,” it is possible to access information without contacting the participants (Tufekci, 2008). In addition to being able to utilize this information for informational purposes, researchers can examine “ways we wish to be seen,” looking for how people are “engaging in identity expression, communication, and impression management”. As the research and discourse continues in fields such as sociology, mass communications, and cultural studies, the scope of mediums included in popular culture also increases. In addition to film, television, radio, art, usic, fashion, Hollywood, professional sports, advertising, and literature, online social networking is proving to be just as significant as the more established genres. The process online social networking involves individuals voluntarily posting information about themselves-personal thoughts, feelings, beliefs, activities-in a public arena with unlimited access for anyone with an Internet connection. The amount of personal information contained in a profile is completely dependent on the author’s judgment (Arledge, 2008). Based on Arledge (2008) analysis in order to participate in any aspect of an online social network, one must create a personal “profile,” that may include photos, music, quotations, and personal information.

Sharing profiles is how people interact online, and the creator of a profile chooses whether or not to restrict access to his or her profile. Once a “personal profile” is established, a person monitors access to his or her profile and either accepts another user as a “friend” or denies access. “Friends” then correspond and touch base through these profiles (Ellison, Steinfeld, and Lampe, 2007). Many of these online social networking sites are focused on a specific subject or interest, but both Facebook and MySpace are very general and less specialized. Facebook are open to both youth and adults; however, in Facebook, Boyd (2006) says that “Over 50 million accounts have been created and the majority of participants are what would be labeled youth-ages 14-24” (Arledge, 2008).

Within the realm of social media are the growingly popular social networks. A social networking service focuses on building and reflecting social networks and relationships among people who share interests, activities or other similarities. A social networking service essentially poses a virtual representation of a user, called a profile. This profile often features the user’s basic information, such as age, location and sex, as well information regarding one’s hobbies, such as favorite movies, musical artists and books. Users are encouraged to connect to one another using a variety of communication tools. These include public profile messages, private e-mail messages, instant messages and gifts.

Social networking services rely on user participation and user-generated content. Both features not only provide the basis for which these sites may exist, but they enhance the usability and resulting popularity of the service. The most popular social networking services include MySpace, Facebook, and Twitter (http://lcowie. wordpress. com/2010/04/29/social-medias-influence-on-adolescent-identity/, 01 August 2010). Mark Deuze argues that online social experiences are powerful tools for individual participants. He believes our reactions to this medium may be categorized in three different responses, one of which is that we are “active agents in the process of meaning-making (we become participants)” (Deuze, 2006).

This ability to participate, interact, and respond to media represented in popular culture is one significant difference that makes online social networking a positive experience for adolescents experimenting with identity formation (Arledge, 2008). Being able to participate and exchange information and ideas online instead of in person is also a changing phenomenon in our society. Boyd (2006) says that “teens have increasingly less access to public space. Classic 1950s hang out locations like the roller rink and burger joints are disappearing while malls and 7/11s are banning teens unaccompanied by parents,” thus, Facebook is one of the places, even though virtual, where teens can “hang out” without being controlled or censored by adults.

Part of experimenting with identity is the social component, and online social networks are an adaptation of this shift in culture and public space. The concept of “social capital,” introduced by Coleman and defined by Bourdieu and Wacquant as “the sum of all resources, actual or virtual, that accrue to an individual or a group by virtue of possessing a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition”. If teens are lacking the physical space in which to “hang out” and acquire necessary “social capital,” the Internet and online social networks surely provide that avenue, which ultimately works toward shaping identities.

The complexities of this shift are still being researched, but any insight into these differences is helpful in understanding the impact of Internet usage on adolescent identity formation (Arledge, 2008). Meden (2009) includes the study of Sonia Livingstone and she presented in an article Taking risky opportunities in youthful content creation: “Teenagers’ use of social networking sites for intimacy, privacy and self-expression”. Livingstone’s conclusions on teenagers’ practices of social networking can be summed up as first, teenagers are playing and experimenting with their identities within social networks and for them “self-actualization increasingly includes a careful negotiation between the opportunities (for dentity, intimacy, sociability) and risks (regarding privacy, misunderstanding and abuse) afforded by internet-mediated communication” and thus the strategies of representing the self vary considerably. Second, younger teenagers relished the opportunities to play and display, continuously recreating a highly-decorated, stylistically-elaborate identity, wherein older teenagers expressed a notion of identity lived through authentic relationships with others (Livingston suggests that this shift may have implications for teenagers’ experience of online opportunity and risks). Third, teenagers perceive online risks critically, which is amongst others apparent in the differences between using identity as display or identity as connection. Also evident and significant is the fact of limited Internet literacy.

Fourth, It should not be assumed that profiles are simply read as information about the individual (in some cases the “position in the peer network was more significant than the personal information provided, rendering the profile a place-marker more than a self portrait”) and lastly, teenagers use social networking sites as part only of their social relations, and in so doing they are choosing communication channels according to what they are communicating and to whom. New means of ‘constructing social reality’ is being set up, with it our own identity construction of the individual. But it is not only how computers are mediating communication between people, as it is more and more about the communication between the computer and us. It is this phenomenon that changes the ways in which we communicate between ourselves, changes our informal practices, our culture. This is even more obvious if we look at the phenomena of web based social networks.

The fact that we are interacting with non-human agents is nothing new, but in many cases we are not even communicating with people on social networks, but with the application, which presents us the user and his activity (Meden, 2009). The ways in which offline and online networks bled into one another, the assumed online to offline directionality may not apply to today’s SNSs that are structured both to articulate existing connections and enable the creation of new ones. However, because there is little empirical research that addresses whether members use SNSs to maintain existing ties or to form new ones, the social capital implications of these services are unknown (http://jcmc. indiana. edu/vol12/issue4/ellison. html 01 September 2010).

Inadvertently, users have formulated new behaviors for managing context online. As data is primarily collapsed through one’s name or email address, people create multiple accounts and associate particular accounts with particular contexts. The most obvious example of this is the separation between work and personal email addresses. By managing multiple accounts, people are able to regain some control and privacy. In doing so, they are also formulating a new paradigm for conceptualizing context localization. Maintaining multiple personas online satisfies many goals for the digital individual. In the early days of MUDs and MOOs, people regularly explored their identity by playing with different online personas.

Because people chose to fragment their social identity, digital researchers such as Boyd (2001) referencing the study of Sherry Turkle (1995) and Sandy Stone (1998) saw this play as indicative of a postmodern, fragmented self. Yet, the play in which people engaged simply gave them the ability to reflect on, experiment with, and process their own identity. Fragmented social presentations online provides even greater flexibility for the multi -faceted individual, as it allows them to walk through common spaces presenting different aspects of themselves rather than being required to maintain one persona per space, as is necessary offline says Reid. While role-playing is a fascinating, it is only one of the motivations behind maintaining multiple accounts.

Seeking privacy or segregation of lives, people maintain multiple accounts that represent different facets of their internal identity. In the realm of Usenet, this allows the user to use one account to discuss topics related to programming and one to talk about recreational interests (Boyd, 2001). For Boyd (2001), as an alternative to anonymity, this allows people to build reputations and friendships while only revealing particular aspects of their identity. So long as people maintain a strict boundary between accounts (i. e. not providing one’s name or other identifying information), this provides a barrier when archives aggregate across or allow access to data through individual identification. By maintaining multiple accounts, users associate context locally.

In other words, rather than adjusting one’s presentation according to the situation or current population, one can maintain an account that represents a specific facet and present oneself through that. In doing so, people take their internal facets and create external representations for them. Thus, faces function directly from externalized facets, or accounts, rather than through the individual themselves. When reading for situational and interpersonal context information, people assess which facet should be associated with that interaction and use it exclusively. As one moves from one ephemeral context to another, one simply switches accounts or facets.

Thus, when one logs into one’s work email, one knows that one is presenting the work face uniformly through this account. In doing so, people have started a new paradigm of social interaction online. Although this may initially appear peculiar, multiple email addresses/handles fill a desired void of the digital realm – the ability to manage the given context. They have minimized the collapsed contexts by maintaining the contexts locally; thus, what is aggregated is done so across a particular facet instead of a particular individual. Of course, people maintain a varying number of accounts and they differ as to how strictly they segregate their different facets.

People’s consciousness of this behavior is often dependent on how much they feel it is necessary to maintain segregated facets. While such control mechanisms work as a substitute for the failure of digital context, they are only temporary bandages for a larger problem. It will be collapsed in the near future, accidentally or maliciously by those who want to reveal people online, through new technological advancements, or systematically by initiatives such as Microsoft’s Passport. Managing separate facets is neither convenient nor intuitive; thus, only those with the greatest need put forth the effort to segregate their facets Boyd (2001) manifested.

Online social network sites may play a role different from that described in early literature on virtual communities. Online interactions do not necessarily remove people from their offline world but may indeed be used to support relationships and keep people in contact, even when life changes move them away from each other. In addition to helping student populations, this use of technology could support a variety of populations, including professional researchers, neighborhood and community members, employees of companies, or others who benefit from maintained ties (http://jcmc. indiana. edu/vol12/issue4/ellison. html 01 September 2010). Social Networking Activities Blogging.

The word, blog, comes from the term “weblog” to mean “websites that maintain an ongoing chronicle of information” that is changed or improved on regular basis which features something personal, something political which can radiate from a micro scale of topics, blogs are common because there is a content area where articles are written and where new topics are placed on the top with old ones below; bloggers form communities where people find a chance to make exchanges with one another while learning and sharing ideas, making friends or doing business with anyone around the world (Rowse, 2005). Content Sharing. The activity allows a sharing of all content to provide “information, photographs, videos where there are countless sites that speed up the exchanges which could be shared with everyone around the world and examples of the sites are YOU-tube, Zoopy, Zoomr, Fluckiest, Photobucket and Flickr. Discussion Board. It is an “asynchronous communication tool allowing someone to post a statement or ask a question online and the individuals of the same discussion board could read what is posted and respond to their own comments at time.

On board, a person may ask a question while three other persons may post an answer to the question; posts are called “threads” of conversation. Forum. A discussion space on a certain website is like a message board or a discussion group, sometimes called a bulletin board or a web forum which allows members to post or respond posts by other members of the forum. In order to join the Internet forum, a member is required to register, to follow online rules as netiquette. Afterwards, he or she uses a username and password. Threads are the sep0arete conversations in a forum and members can edit their own post, begin new topics, send their own topics or edit their profile (Cyprus, 2009). Instant Messaging.

On the other hand, instant messaging or IM involves the sending of messages on actual time to another Internet-user; it is like chatting but it is limited to people one prefers to speak to; it is faster and simpler than the email; users can also respond immediately to make comments or ask questions; it is one of the easiest ways to communicate with members of one’s family and friends while saving expenses over long distance calls (Holetzky, 2009) Mailing List. This contains a listing of individuals who subscribe to a “periodic mailing distribution on a particular topic” to include e-mail and postal address. It allows for a vast expanse of distribution about information to many users. Organizations may also avail of its services to send publications to members and costumers.

You-tube. Feldman (2007) argued that you-tube is an online public communication with which members are registered in that they are free to upload videos to be made available for public viewing. On the You-tube, everyone is free to read and watch anything; it was designed and released in 2005 by PayPal; and was later purchased by Google; on the You-tube, everyone may be entertained or may engaged in business. Role- Playing Game. Role-playing game (Kim, 2009) is an online game wherein the players pretend they were the fictional characters in the game. Participants would decide on the actions of the characters according to how they are described.

Their success or failure would depend on a system of norms; however, within the systems of rules the character would be free to decide on the actions thus, they are accountable to their own wins or losses. Adolescents in Social Networking Today’s teenagers are being socialized into a society complicated by shifts in the public and private. New social technologies have altered the underlying architectures of social interaction and information distribution. They are embracing this change, albeit often with the clumsy candor of an elephant in a china shop. Meanwhile, most adults are panicking. They do not understand the shifts that are taking place and, regardless, they don’t like what they’re seeing http://kt. flexiblelearning. net. au/tkt2007/edition-13/social-network-sites-public-private-or-what/ 01 September 2010).

In communities around the world, teenagers are joining social network sites (SNSes) like MySpace, Facebook and Bebo. Once logged into these systems, participants are asked to create a profile to represent themselves digitally. Using text, images, video, audio, links, quizzes, and surveys, teens generate a profile that expresses how they see themselves. These profiles are seen together into a large web through ‘Friends’ lists. Participants can mark other users as ‘Friends’. If that other person agrees with the relationship assertion, a photo of each is displayed on the profile of the other. Through careful selection, participants develop a ‘Friends’ list http://kt. flexiblelearning. net. u/tkt2007/edition-13/social-network-sites-public-private-or-what/ 01 September 2010). By our measures, all of these forms of participatory culture are blossoming in their own right. Even in the cases where we see little or no growth in the incidence of certain a

Management Behavior Memo

Running Head: MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOR MEMO Management Behavior Memo SDS University of Phoenix October 25, 2009 October 25, 2009 Memorandum TO: All First Level Managers FROM: SDS, Manager RE: Management Behavior The CEO has announced InterClean, Inc. has officially acquired EnviroTech, placing 60 employees into our current sales team within the next few months. This merger will place the company in the lead of the global market. The equilibrium of the merger will require commitment on the behalf of the management team.

This memorandum is for you, as managers, to understand how to be prepared to adapt to the challenges of the merger, especially in regards to three specific areas: management behavior and communication, teamwork within a diverse atmosphere, and employment laws. Management Behavior & Communication There are times in which society celebrates outstanding companies, when in truth there are only outstanding managers to be commended (Cascio, 2005). Perhaps the celebration of these outstanding companies is because employee behavior can be greatly affected by management behavior.

Managers should be the model of how the ideal employee acts, thinks, and behaves. Managers form the cornerstone for productive employees. For our company to lead in the global market, we will need productive, engaged employees who have taken the initiative from management examples. Managers should be well informed. A knowledgeable manager will be better equipped to lead a productive department. A manager with either personal knowledge or access to information will lend his/herself to be a better source for stability in a time of change and transition.

I wish it to be known I am available as a resource for the management team in regards to any questions any manager may have. I am asking all leaders to take a proactive approach and seek answers to your own questions before the need to answer employee questions arises. This leads me into the area of communication. Effective communication between management and employees, both seasoned and new employees, should have a goal of mutual understanding. Management-employee relations benefit from agreement; however, if messages are to be correctly conveyed within a conversation, understanding needs to be present.

Communication between managers and employees needs to be open on both sides to avoid misunderstanding (Brecher, 2009). Buhler (2009) stated ways to avoid miscommunication, which can be utilized during this crucial time: recognize miscommunication is normal, be aware of body language during conversations, say only what you mean and mean only what you say, and in electronic communication, think before sending. Effective communication is not a one-way street and involves a great amount of teamwork; thus being stated, I need to speak about teamwork within a diverse atmosphere.

Teamwork within a Diverse Atmosphere Teamwork is not only crucial for success during the normal workday, but it is also needed for challenging and exciting plans for our company. As InterClean, Inc. engages into the acquisition of Enviro Tech, a more diverse work environment will be created, wherein team work will be essential for success. There are many forms of diversity, some more easily to recognize than others. Diversity can be of the mind or in circumstance, as in education accomplishments or socio-economical background.

Diversity can also be of the physical body or psychosocial characteristics, such as race, age, gender, ethnic variations, or sexual orientation (Yukl, 2006). Better teamwork among employees can be accomplished by embracing diversity within the workplace. InterClean, Inc. stands firm behind the idea of diversity management and provision of equal opportunity employment and advancement for all employees. The diverse atmosphere will create a great benefit for InterClean, Inc. ; the diversity can bring new ideas and thoughts to our company, as we will have an increased pool of talent in which to draw upon for job placement.

Diversity within our company as we advance to the global market will give us an advantage as we embrace this new challenge. Employment Laws Ethical and lawful behavior has always been expected at this company; however, it is especially important now. All managers need to understand the importance of fair employee treatment; this includes both potential employees and existing employees. Managers also need to sharpen communication skills and be able to perform in an environment consisting of a variety of cultural backgrounds. Understanding employee laws can prevent complaints of ethical violations and/or employee laws.

Our CEO, David Spencer, spoke of management training in regards to OSHA standards, environmental regulations, and other emerging issues. David also recently spoke to all employees in a memo stating that there are many opportunities for job transfers into new positions and/or help in creation of these positions. With the additional 60 employees merging from Enviro Tech, the cultural diversity will be larger. Managers must remain professional and evaluate individual employees on grounds of capability for performance and job requirements, not cultural difference. Conclusion

Your efforts and behaviors will truly make the difference for InterClean, Inc. during the acquisition of Enviro Tech. With all management support in the areas of management behavior and communication, teamwork within a diverse atmosphere, and employment laws, the integration of Enviro Tech employees should proceed without problematic issues. Please remember, your behavior reflects our company’s values; I expect both of these to be in alignment. Thank you, Starlla Schmitt, Manager References Brecher, N. (2009). The art of talking: To be understood, make your conversation a two way street. Journal of Property Management 18(1).

Retrieved October 22, 2009, from General OneFile. Gale. Apollo Library Buhler, P. (2009, July). Managing in the new millennium. SuperVision, 70(7), 19-21. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1756521561). Cascio, W. (2006). Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill. University of Phoenix. (2008). Scenario: InterClean, Inc.. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from University of Phoenix, Week One, HRM 531 Web site. Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in Organizations (6th ed). Prentice Hall, Inc. : A Pearson Education Company

Starbucks Research Essay

Shawna Jansing English 103. 082 Dr. Carole Clark Papper Final Research Essay 12 December 2005 Starbucks: A Coffee Lover’s Paradise http://snjansing. iweb. bsu. edu/ENG103/Argument. html What is so extraordinary about Starbucks coffee? To most people who are addicted to drinking Starbucks coffee, its delicious taste keeps people coming back for more and more everyday. The widely known coffee company, Starbucks, captures the attention of its customers and keeps on feeding them regardless of their high prices. Starbucks is bought by many celebrities and is displayed in movies and in other media.

It isn’t really a family restaurant, but has become a “fashion trend” on college campuses and in big cities. Starbucks offers a variety of coffees, espressos, and its frappuccinos. Despite the outrageous damage to a person’s wallet, Starbucks attracts its customers through its delicious and satisfying coffees. Starbucks popularity is more essential to people than its expensive prices. Starbucks was founded in 1971 in Seattle, Washington. Three men by the names of Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegel, and Gordon Bowker started and opened the first Starbucks. The company got its name from a character in Moby Dick named Starbuck.

In the beginning Starbucks did not sell beverages, it sold coffee beans and spices (“Food” 1). With every corporation there is almost always a logo that symbolizes the company. The recognized logo that represents Starbucks is of a siren or a mermaid (“Starbucks” 6). An example of the current Starbucks logo is shown to the left. She has two tails with long wavy hair decorated with a four-pointed crown topped with a star. Three colors fill the design: hunter green, white, and a solid black. Figure 1 This symbol is displayed throughout each Starbucks store.

The purpose of this image is to illustrate the visual picture Starbucks wants its customer to imagine when they see or hear Starbucks (Van Der Pool). An important figure in the Starbucks industry today is the Chairman of Starbucks, Howard Schultz. Schultz is described as an inspiring leader with a unique leadership style (Meyers 2). Joining the company in 1982, he has had ideas of changing the marketing and retail of Starbucks. With his distinctive management methods, he knew how to sell Starbucks coffee to an audience and he knew best how to treat them.

He doesn’t worry just about how Starbucks’ products attract people, but how they are treated when they come in and buy a beverage (“Starbucks” 2). The Starbucks Corporation’s bottom line states that, “putting people before products makes good common sense” (“Mission” 1). According to Howard Schultz, “If I am asked as chairman of the company, what is the single reason why Starbucks has been able to achieve its objective qualitatively and quantitatively, I always recite… that our people are making the difference” (Bollier 216).

Referring to the people associated with Starbucks, he also states, “We all want the same thing as people—to be respected and valued as employees and appreciated as customer” (Meyers 2). Howard Schultz’s highly acclaimed leadership skills transformed Starbucks into a popular brand. “Being a great leader means finding the balance between celebrating success and not embracing the status quo. Being a great leader also means identifying a path we need to go down and creating enough confidence in our people so they follow it and don’t veer off course because it’s an easier route to go,” declares Schultz (Meyers 4).

He did not want to focus all his marketing strategies on advertisements, promotions, and on the lowest price. His passion was to serve and satisfy his customers one at a time. He also believed in doing things right and doing them extremely well (Knapp 196-197). Starbucks brand equity was most important. They focused on being “third place. ” By this they wanted to be a relaxing place to make their customers feel comfortable, stimulated, and to feel great (Knapp 33-34). Starbucks also focuses on serving various people of all cultures and welcoming them in.

One of his desires was to create diversity among the Starbucks restaurants. He didn’t want Starbucks to be just an American restaurant, but an international coffeehouse inviting everyone. Over the years, Starbucks multiplied and appeared in other countries besides the United States. Today there are over 5,000 company outlets all over the world (“Starbucks” 1-3). On its website, the Starbucks corporation details a few principles that are included in their mission statement concerning diversity, which is “Embrace diversity as an essential component in the way we do business” (“Diversity” 1).

Diversity is apparent in the work staff of Starbucks too. The employees of Starbucks–Howard Schultz refers to them as the most important asset–are trained to open a new world of coffee for customers. Howard Schultz wants customers to perceive Starbucks as a friendly environment. He treats his employees exceptionally well too. Starbucks offers full health benefits and stock options to its workforce (Bollier 167). The employees are treated with great appreciation; they have no other reason why they shouldn’t treat the customers with respect in a Starbucks restaurant. [pic]Figure 2

Figure 2 shown above shows a “hang-loose” Starbucks restaurant. In the picture above are two ladies relaxing at the restaurant. It doesn’t seem very busy. In the upper half of the picture near the center is the Starbucks logo. The purpose of this picture is to give a view of the inside of a Starbucks restaurant to those who have never been (“Beijing”). Starbucks sells many products besides beverages at its restaurants. There are bags of coffee, coffee mugs, thermos, Starbucks girl and boy stuffed bears, and even coffee or espresso makers (“About” 1). Starbucks products are now venturing into grocery supermarkets.

To-go coffees in glass bottles are easier for busy people who don’t have time to stop and wait for a coffee. The music played in the restaurants is now available to buy on CD’s (Meyers 3). One could have a Starbucks in their home, buy the CD and get the convenient bottles. The restaurant seems to have a high-class setting, but anyone is invited to come in and relax. Starbucks strives to be a business that sells “the best cup of coffee” (Knapp 196). People have heard of Starbucks, but may have never been there. Starbucks competes with leading coffee companies such as Maxwell House, Folgers, and Columbia.

Starbucks popularity keeps people addicted and most other companies like Folgers don’t have a restaurant. When a Starbucks moves into town, little coffeehouses suffer and go out of business, just from their popularity. Starbucks is seen in movies and on TV. The “Austin Powers” series includes several segments of the stars drinking and commenting on Starbucks. Hollywood has put an influence on the Starbucks frenzy as well. Celebrities are buying into the fact they want to be trendy, so they are buying Starbucks. People think if Hollywood does it, then they have to drink it too, to also be trendy.

Our society focuses on being materialistic and fitting in. Starbucks is the popular name brand for coffee. People always must be in fashion and up-to-date so going to Starbucks to buy coffee is cool. Abercrombie & Fitch and American Eagle are the name brands for teenage clothing and are presented the same way. Their prices are high, but its customers always come back for more. People desire the need to be in fashion when they could spend their money on cheaper things. Many things are overlooked such as the importance of family, friends, and caring for others before themselves.

These are the true meanings in life rather than being with the in-crowd. To experience the mania, I visited Starbucks and tried a couple of their products. I pulled into the restaurant and I noticed there were very few parking spots. I had to drive out of the parking area and park in a lot next to Starbucks. I first walk in the door and noticed that Starbucks was getting ready for Christmas. The cups were colored red decorated with white Christmas lights illustrations around the top. After taking a quick gander, I stepped in line.

While I waited in line for about 15 minutes, I decided to look some more because I wanted to discover their atmosphere. There were students studying and two older males taking a break and chatting. I checked out the variety of coffee bags setting on a stand next to me. I watched the employees to see how they treated their customers and if they kept busy and used sterilized containers and utensils. When it was my turn to order, I felt uncomfortable and rushed due to the fact that there were a wide variety of drinks and coffees to choose from. I said I would like peppermint mocha, but I didn’t know what size to get.

The sizes were confusing to a first-time Starbucks customer like myself. The tall, white male then replied, “Would you like a tall, grande, or venti? ” I had no clue which to get so I told him to give me the smallest size. The smallest size is supposed to be the cheapest, but at Starbucks it was over three dollars. While I was in line, I drooled over the sight of the blueberry muffin. I added that to my order too. My total amounted to over five dollars. I could get a meal for less than that at McDonald’s. The cashier did not seem as friendly as I thought an employee who worked there would be.

I finished my purchase and walked out a little disappointed. When I took my first sip of a Starbucks coffee, I was disgusted. The peppermint stung the bottom of my throat and left a terrible aftertaste. The hot chocolate part of it was delicious. The blueberry muffin was just like grandmas home cooking. Overall, after my first-time visit, I would give it about a five out of ten because of the poor respect the workers gave and the coffee wasn’t as great as I expected it to be. At one point when I was waiting in line, an employee walked by me and didn’t smile or give me eye contact.

I suppose since so many hungry customers desire food, that’s what they are more after than how they are treated in the restaurant. After my experience at Starbucks, I would go back for the environment and not buy anything because of the high prices. I admired the restaurant itself because of its unique displays and the merchandise was interesting to look at. The restaurant was clean and smelled refreshing. There were a wide variety of coffees and mochas, but the price burned my eyes. Kevin Robertson, a long-time coffee drinker and a Ball State student, admitted, “I would buy Starbucks everyday, but I can’t afford it” (Robertson).

Starbucks captures the attention of its audience and makes so many people devoted to drinking their Starbucks coffee everyday through the motivation and influence of Howard Schultz hard-working skills. Schultz works hard to achieve respect and popularity. When you stand in line, you can’t help but admire the neatness of a Starbucks restaurant. It feels like you are in New York in a nifty cafe. The employees are amiable and do their best to be at your service. According to The Brand Mindset, “Starbucks is the expert in the coffee business and has a powerful brand identity among customers” (Knapp 189).

The prices are extremely high, but the company looks past that to focus on the environment of the customer. Starbucks effective taste and popularity captivates its customers over its costly prices. Bibliography “About Us. ” Starbucks. 13 November 2005 . “Beijing, October 1999. ” Washedashore. com. 20 November 2005 . Bollier, David. Aiming Higher. Atlanta: American Management Association, 1996. “Diversity at Starbucks. ” Starbucks. 13 November 2005 . “Food & Drink. ” Starbucks Coffee Company. 13 November 2005

Innovative Building Materials

ABSTRACT Latest innovations have developed new materials and better technologies in the field of construction. The need of the hour is the replacement of costly and scarce conventional building materials by innovative, cost effective and environment friendly alternate building materials. Here we see about the Insulating concrete forms (ICF) Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) Structural insulated panels (SIP) By implementing these technologies gives birth to many sub level new engineering concepts. These engineering conceptual methods now days become very important, latest practically applied fields in innovative constructions.

The major problem by the conventional structures due to various aspects can be resolved by incorporating these techniques. By using these technologies we can have a great space for research work as how these implemented things work on. INNOVATIVE BUILDING MATERIALS INTRODUCTION India’s present housing shortage is estimated to be as high as 31. 1 million units as per 2001 Census and out of these shortage 24 million units are in rural area and 7. 1 million units in urban areas. The Govt. of India has targeted the year 2010 for providing Housing for All.

In 1998, Government of India announced a National Housing and Habitat Policy which aims at providing “Housing for All” and facilitating the construction of 20 lakh additional housing units annually, with emphasis on extending benefits to the poor and the deprived. Apart from the above housing needs, nearly 1% of the housing stock in the country is destroyed every year due to natural hazards. Such large scale housing construction activities require huge amount of money. Out of the total cost of house construction, building materials contribute to about 70 percent costs in developing countries like India.

Therefore, we need to replace the costly and scarce conventional building materials. The new material should be environment friendly and preferably utilize industrial/agro wastes because as a result of rapid industrialization. Large number of innovative building materials developed through intensive research efforts during last three to four decades satisfies functional as well as specification requirements of conventional materials/techniques and provide an avenue for the construction job to complete faster more durable and to bring down the cost too .

Some of the innovative building materials which are user friendly and cost effective are seen below. INSULATING CONCRETE FORMS Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) are formwork for concrete that stays in place as permanent building insulation for energy-efficient, cast-in-place, reinforced concrete walls, floors, and roofs. The forms are interlocking modular units that are dry-stacked (without mortar) and filled with concrete.

The forms lock together serve to create a form for the structural walls of a building. Concrete is pumped into the cavity to form the structural element of the walls. Usually reinforcing steel (rebar) is added before concrete placement to give the resulting walls flexural strength, similar to bridges and high-rise buildings made of concrete The forms are filled with concrete in 1-4 foot “lifts” to reduce the risk of blowouts like with other concrete formwork.

After the concrete has cured, or firmed up, the forms are left in place permanently for the following reasons: Thermal and acoustic insulation Space to run electrical conduit and plumbing. The foam on either side of the forms can easily accommodate electrical and plumbing installations. Backing for gypsum boards on the interior and stucco, brick, or other siding on the exterior Types of systems ICFs can be made from a variety of materials: Expanded polystyrene (EPS) – most common

Extruded polystyrene Polyurethane Cement-bonded wood fibre Cement-bonded polystyrene beads The majority of forms are made of foam insulation, such as expanded polystyrene (EPS), and are either separate panels connected with plastic connectors or ties; or pre-formed interlocking blocks connected with plastic or steel connectors or ties. Most forms have vertically oriented furring strips built into the forms on 6”, 8”, or 12” centres which are used to secure interior and exterior finishes.

Different ICF systems also vary in the shape of the resulting concrete within the wall: “Flat” systems form an even thickness of concrete throughout the walls, like a conventionally poured wall – 3rd Generation ICF: most common “Waffle Grid” systems create a waffle pattern where the concrete is thicker at some points than others – 2nd Generation ICF: somewhat lower structural strength & fire resistance “Post-and-Beam” or “screen grid” systems form discrete horizontal and vertical columns of concrete – 1st Generation ICF: least resistance to fires

Benefits Manufacturers commonly cite the following advantages compared to traditional building materials, especially in residential and light commercial construction. It needs to be said, however, that it is questionable what is meant by “traditional building materials”; this comparison apparently assumes different worst-case alternatives for each point. Minimal, if any, air leaks, which improves comfort and less heat loss compared with walls without an air barrier Thermal resistance (R-value) typically above 3 K•m? W (in American customary units: R-17); this results in saving energy compared with uninsulated masonry. High sound absorption, which helps produce peace and quiet compared with framed walls Structural integrity for better resistance to forces of nature, compared with framed walls Higher resale value due to longevity of materials More insect resistant than wood frame construction When the building is constructed on a concrete slab, the walls and floors form one continuous surface; this keeps out insects.

Concrete does not rot when it gets wet Construction methods are easy to learn, and manufacturers often have training available ICF structures are much more comfortable, quiet, and energy-efficient than those built with traditional construction methods. Designing and Building with ICFs help your construction project attain Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building status. Insulating Concrete Forms create a monolithic concrete wall that is 10 times stronger than wood framed structures. Disadvantages

Adding or moving doors, windows, or utilities is somewhat harder once the building is complete (requires concrete cutting tools). Cost – Depending on design, an average home will cost about 2% – 4% per square foot more than a conventional wood built home. For high-end homes constructed of concrete the insulating concrete form solution is usually less expensive. However, the energy savings of an ICF home usually result in lower cost for utilities. During the first weeks immediately after construction, minor problems with interior humidity may be evident as the concrete cures.

Dehumidification can be accomplished with small residential dehumidifiers or using the building’s air conditioning system. FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER (FRP) COMPOSITES The Evolution of Composites within Civil Engineering Civil engineers have been in search for alternatives to steels and alloys to combat the high costs of repair and maintenance of structures damaged by corrosion and heavy use for years. Since the 1940s, composite materials, formed by the combination of two or more distinct materials in a microscopic scale, have gained increasing popularity in the engineering field.

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a relatively new class of composite material manufactured from fibers and resins and has proven efficient and economical for the development and repair of new and deteriorating structures in civil engineering. The mechanical properties of FRPs make them ideal for widespread applications in construction worldwide. FRP Laminate Structure FRPs are typically organized in a laminate structure, such that each lamina contains an arrangement of unidirectional fibres or woven fibre fabrics embedded within a thin layer of light polymer matrix material.

The fibres, typically composed of carbon or glass, provide the strength and stiffness. The matrix, commonly made of polyester, Epoxy or Nylon, binds and protects the fibers from damage, and transfers the stresses between fibers. Suitability of FRP for Uses in Structural Engineering The strength properties of FRPs collectively make up one of the primary reasons for which civil engineers select them in the design of structures. A material’s strength is governed by its ability to sustain a load without excessive deformation or failure.

When an FRP specimen is tested in axial tension, the applied force per unit cross-sectional area (stress) is proportional to the ratio of change in a specimen’s length to its original length (strain). When the applied load is removed, FRP returns to its original shape or length. In other words, FRP responds linear-elastically to axial stress. The response of FRP to axial compression is reliant on the relative proportion in volume of fibers, the properties of the fiber and resin, and the interface bond strength.

FRP composite compression failure occurs when the fibers exhibit extreme (often sudden and dramatic) lateral or sides-way deflection called fiber buckling. FRP’s response to transverse tensile stress is very much dependent on the properties of the fiber and matrix, the interaction between the fiber and matrix, and the strength of the fiber-matrix interface. Generally, however, tensile strength in this direction is very poor. Shear stress is induced in the plane of an area when external loads tend to cause two segments of a body to slide over one another. The shear strength of FRP is difficult to quantify.

Generally, failure will occur within the matrix material parallel to the fibers. Among FRP’s high strength properties, the most relevant features include excellent durability and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, their high strength-to-weight ratio is of significant benefit; a member composed of FRP can support larger live loads since its dead weight does not contribute significantly to the loads that it must bear. Other features include ease of installation, versatility, anti-seismic behaviour, electromagnetic neutrality, excellent fatigue behaviour, and fire resistance.

Applications of FRP Composites in Construction There are three broad divisions into which applications of FRP in civil engineering can be classified: applications for new construction, repair and rehabilitation applications, and architectural application. FRPs have been used widely by civil engineers in the design of new construction. Structures such as bridges and columns built completely out of FRP composites have demonstrated exceptional durability, and effective resistance to effects of environmental exposure.

Pre-stressing tendons, reinforcing bars, grid reinforcement, and dowels are all examples of the many diverse applications of FRP in new structures. One of the most common uses for FRP involves the repair and rehabilitation of damaged or deteriorating structures. Several companies across the world are beginning to wrap damaged bridge piers to prevent collapse and steel-reinforced columns to improve the structural integrity and to prevent buckling of the reinforcement. Architects have also discovered the many applications for which FRP can be used. These include structures such as siding/cladding, roofing, flooring and partitions.

Repair and Strengthening of Tanks with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Carbon FRP offers an ideal solution for repair and strengthening of tanks and silos that are damaged by corrosion. In many cases, leakage of these tanks can be stopped by means of carbon or glass FRP. Moreover, by applying carbon or glass FRP, repair and strengthening of the tank or silo can be achieved to levels that exceed original design strength. This is particularly interesting since such strengthening or repair with FRP will allow additional loads to be imposed on the FRP-retrofitted tank.

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is an economical and efficient material for repairing and preventing corrosion and/or leakage problems in metallic, reinforced concrete and fiber glass tanks and silos. Among the advantages of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) for repair and strengthening of tanks and silos are: FRP provides a continuously bonded liner on the tank’s inner and/or outer surfaces that forms an air-tight seal that effectively prevents corrosion and leakage and strengthens the tank or silo. FRP increases the flexural and shear strength of rectangular tanks.

FRP increases the longitudinal and hoop strength of circular and cylindrical tanks and silos FRP provides electrical insulation for tanks used as electrolytic cells in the mining industry. FRP resists high temperatures of contained substances when bonded with heat-cured resins. FRP resists highly corrosive substances when coated with high chemical resistant toppings. When installed on the inner surfaces, technicians can access through openings (manholes) and no excavation of underground tanks is required.

Seismic Repair and Strengthening of Concrete Columns with Glass or Carbon FRP Reinforced Concrete columns or bridge piers can be efficiently strengthened with Glass FRP (GFRP) or Carbon FRP (CFRP). Older (pre-1970s) columns have two major shortcomings; they are inadequately confined and the ends of the ties are not properly anchored in the core region. During an earthquake, the ties open and allow the longitudinal steel to buckle, leading to failure of the column. Glass FRP and Carbon FRP can provide significant lateral confinement for concrete columns or bridge piers.

While spiral columns have in general performed well in past earthquakes, the above shortcomings have resulted in failure of many tied columns such as the one shown on the right. The solution is to externally confine the column. External confinement increases the strength of the concrete, but more importantly for seismic applications, the strain at failure of the concrete (i. e. ductility) increases significantly. Among the advantages of retrofitting columns with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) are: Increases Ductility Increases Shear Strength Improves Bond in Starter Bars

Conforms to Various Cross Sections Requires Minimum Access Costs Less than Conventional Methods Slabs Strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Glass or Carbon FRP is a cost-effective system for strengthening concrete floors and decks or correcting design and construction errors that have lead to excessive deflection and sag in the slab. The case history below highlights one such application. Among the advantages of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) for strengthening slabs are: Increased flexural strength for both positive and negative moment regions in the slab Increased slab tiffness and reduced deflections at service loads Reduced crack widths for enhanced durability Covering a fraction of the slab surface with FRP may be sufficient for strengthening the entire slab No reduction in overhead clearance is caused by application of FRP (e. g. in parking garages) Lower cost for FRP compared to strengthening with conventional methods (e. g. epoxy injection in cracks) Glass or Carbon FRP are very effective in repair and strengthening of slabs and decks.

Because the moment capacity of the slab or deck is the couple resulting from the tensile and compressive forces, FRP can be applied to the tension face of the beam to increase the tension force. In most cases, the deck or slab has sufficient compressive strength and does not require strengthening. However, if needed, FRP can also be added to the compression face of the beam as a part of strengthening and repair. Strengthening of Steel Bridge Girders with Carbon FRP Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is an economical and efficient system for flexural strengthening of steel bridge girders.

Among the advantages of repair and strengthening of steel beams and girders with FRP are: Increased flexural strength in the steel girder for both positive and negative moment regions Restores steel girder capacity after loss of tension flange area due to corrosion Increased stiffness of the steel girder in both elastic and plastic response Eliminates stress concentration in the steel girder due to welding Improved fatigue behavior of steel bridge girder (after retrofit with FRP) Lower cost than conventional methods

The feasibility of strengthening of steel bridge girders with carbon FRP was demonstrated through an extensive research study at the University of Arizona. The girders were constructed using W14x30 steel sections and as shown in the above photos, spanned 16 feet (4. 8 m) during the test. To simulate prior damage, the area of the tension flange for the beam or girder was reduced by 25%. The load-deflection for that damaged beam is shown in red. The tension flange of a similar companion beam was strengthened by applying 3 strips of Carbon Fiber (CFRP).

The behaviour of the steel beam or girder strengthened with carbon FRP is shown in the graph below. As can be seen, the strength of the bridge steel girder that was retrofitted with carbon FRP was significantly increased; this was also accompanied by a profound increase in stiffness of the girder in the plastic region. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) also improves the fatigue behavior of the structure; the CFRP retrofitted beams could resist 2? – 3? times more cycles of loading compared to the cracked bridge steel girders that were not retrofitted with carbon FRP.

Utility Tunnels Repaired with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Utility tunnels are concrete box girders that are widely used in major cities to house the various underground utility cables and pipes. Because they are always placed below grade, they are subject to moisture and in many cases the reinforcement in these structures corrodes. This could lead to potential failure and collapse of the tunnel. The case presented here is such a tunnel located below the Arizona State Hospital grounds in Phoenix.

In nearly all cases, the opening to the tunnel is very small, making it difficult to repair the structure with conventional approaches. Carbon fabric was used to strengthen this structure. The fabric was saturated near the tunnel opening. Due to the extreme high temperatures in summer, the contractor provided a chilled room on the site to store the resins. A temporary canopy was also erected to shield the Saturation Machine and to prevent rapid setting of the saturating resin. Saturated fabrics were passed into the tunnel through the manhole and were applied to all interior surfaces of the tunnel.

This slide shows the interior of the tunnel after the repair was completed. The pipes were temporarily covered with protective plastic sheets. The limited space inside the tunnel is clearly evident in this slide. STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL Structural insulated panels (or structural insulating panels), SIPs, are a composite building material. They consist of a sandwich of two layers of structural board with an insulating layer of foam in between. The board can be sheet metal or oriented strand board (OSB) and the foam either xpanded polystyrene foam (EPS), extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) or polyurethane foam. SIPs share the same structural properties as an I-beam or I-column. The rigid insulation core of the SIP performs as a web, while the OSB sheathing exhibits the same properties as the flanges. SIPs replace several components of conventional building such as studs and joists, insulation, vapor barrier and air barrier. As such they can be used for many different applications such as exterior wall, roof, floor and foundation systems. Materials

SIPs are most commonly made of OSB panels sandwiched around a foam core made of expanded polystyrene (EPS), extruded polystyrene (XPS) or rigid polyurethane foam, but other materials can be used, such as plywood, pressure-treated plywood for below-grade foundation walls, steel, aluminum, cementitious panels, and even exotic materials like stainless steel, fiber-reinforced plastic, and Magnesium Oxide. Some SIPs use fiber-cement or plywood for the panels, and agricultural fiber, such as wheat straw, for the core. Benefits

The use of SIPs brings many benefits and some drawbacks when compared to a conventional framed building. A well built home using SIPs will have a tighter building envelope and the walls will have higher insulating properties, which leads to fewer drafts and a decrease in operating costs for maintaining a comfortable interior environment for the occupants. Also, due to the standardized and all-in-one nature of SIPs construction time can be reduced over building a frame home as well as requiring fewer trades for system integration.

The panels can be used as floor, wall, and roof, with the use of the panels as floors being of particular benefit when used above an uninsulated space below. An OSB skinned system structurally outperforms conventional stick framed construction in some cases; primarily in axial load strength. With the exception of structural metals, such as steel, all structural materials creep over time. In the case of SIPs, the creep potential of OSB faced SIPs with EPS or polyurethane foam cores have been studied and creep design recommendations exist.

The long-term effects of using unconventional facing and core materials require material specific testing to quantify creep design values. Many asphalt shingle manufacturers will not warrantee their product over a SIP. Shingles tend to overheat and research has shown a shortened life span. Dimensions and characteristics In the United States, SIPs tend to come in sizes from 4 feet (1. 22 m) to 24 feet (7. 32 m) in width. Elsewhere, typical product dimensions are 300, 600, or 1200 mm wide and 2. 4, 2. , and 3 m long, with roof SIPs up to 6 m long. Smaller sections ease transportation and handling, but the use of the largest panel possible will create the best insulated building. At 15? 20 kg/m? , longer panels can become difficult to work with without the use of a crane to position them, and this is a consideration that must be taken into account due to cost and site limitations. Also of note is that when needed for special circumstances longer spans can often be requested, such as for a long roof span. Typical U.

S. height for panels is eight or nine feet (2. 44 to 2. 75 m). Wall panels tend to come in 125–200 mm thicknesses (US: 4. 5–6. 5 inches), but can be made up to 300 mm (US: 1 ft) for roofs. EPS is the most common of the foams used and has an R-value (thermal resistance) of about 4 K•m? /W per 25 mm thickness, which would give the 3. 5 inches of foam in a 4. 5 inch thick panel an R value of 13. 8 (caution: extrapolating R-values over thickness may be imprecise due to non-linear thermal properties of most materials).

This at face value appears to be comparable to an R-13 batt of fiberglass, but because in a standard stick frame house there is significantly more wall containing low R value wood that acts as a cold bridge, the thermal performance of the R-13. 8 SIP wall will be considerably better. The air sealing features of SIP homes resulted in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star program to establish an inspection protocol in lieu of the typically required blower door test to assess the home’s air leakage.

This serves to speed the process and save the builder/homeowner money. CONCLUSION The technologies which are explained above has been implemented & incorporated in various structures and by various prominent construction companies globally. In order to obtain the core specification in the related fields so as to get the extreme engineering construction. This kind of construction after serving for a decade for the sole purpose for which it is constructed offers us a place of experience & learning and incorporate them with new advanced technologies in it.

So as we can get still more hard core engineering conceptual design buildings, which will serve for more aspects than the conventional buildings. REFERENCES ?Saxena Mohini and Prabhakar J. “Emerging Technologies for Third Millennium on Wood Substitute and Paint from coal ash”, New Delhi, India, February 2000. ?www. quakewrap. com ?WIKIPEDIA ?Taylor, S. B, Manbeck, H. B, Janowiak, J. J, Hiltunum, D. R. “Modeling Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) Flexural Creep Deflection. ” J. Structrual Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 12, December, 1997. ?www. energysavers. gov

Procter and Gamble

Team 2 Markus Bernhuber, Daniel Dong, Tatyana Glushchenko, Francesco Pasquetti, Raffi Semerciyan |August 21th, 2010 | | P&G Case Report Introduction: The case takes us back in June 2000, facing two main issues slumping in stock price and leadership crisis when Jager the CEO at that time steps down and is replaced by Lafley. Jager initiated one year ago a reorganization of P&G called ‘Organization 2005’ in order to regain growth of sales. Mainly the new organization consist of a shift from geographical structure to a global product business divisions structure.

But Wall Street seemed to punish this move in spring 2000 when the stock price felt by 50% from its peak. P&G internal low confidence was also punishing this move and was the expression of the internal resistance to these changes. Lafley, the new CEO who takeover Jager has now a dilemma. He must make a choice on whether or not to continue ‘Organization 2005’. He was facing several problems, first of all the lack of coordination across countries and region combined with a willing of majority of senior manager to reverse back to a regional business organization.

Our job here as EMBA students is to help Lafley in this difficult choice eliminare To do that, we will first understand the features of the ‘Organization 2005’ and their rationales. Then we will also analyse what are the factors that we should consider before concluding with our advices. 1. What are the main features of the Organization 2005 initiative? What are their rationale? The goal of a greater innovation and faster responsiveness was a new culture revolution. Pushing in innovation moving out the organization from the inertia with a strong emphasis of performance target and payment related.

The new organization was a new orientation from geographical to global business unit in order to reduce the burocracy internal to the old organization, thanks to a more efficient integration giving more empowering to the president of the global business unit in order to roll out the new products but at the same time also to be responsible for the P & L , and the senior manager who with a less hierchical organization was be able for a faster decision making.. Features: • New Organizational Structure where: Profit responsibility shifted from P&G four regional organizations to seven global business units (GBU’s) who were now responsible for worldwide products in their category development, manufacturing and marketing. We believe that this is a more efficient way of managing the units as the GBU has a worldwide focus and also knows the adaptation for emerging markets. ? The regional organizations were transformed into seven market development organizations and are responsible for the local implementation of the GBUs’ global strategy. Functional services (HR, Accounting, payroll, IT, … ) were organized into a new global business service unit (GBS). Our understanding is if companies create business service units they plan to get rid of inefficiencies in administration and make better use of their concentrated expertise in the concerned functional service • Emphasis on performance: Increase of performance pay. • For senior management, the performance-related variation in annual compensation would change from 20% to 80% • Stock options were extended from top management team to include middle managers. P&G Budget setting process was organized into a single integrated business-planning process built on stretch performance targets. • Increase decision making authority of middle managers. • Innovate bigger and move faster consistently and across the entire company In P&G? s case they needed to get a step ahead again of their competitors and they needed to achieve sustainable advantage through innovation. • Grow fast and grow profitably Rationales: Low growth of sales during the 1990’s as a result of lack of innovation (according to Jager) • When a new product was introduced, slow global rollout (example of Pampers diapers which needed 20 years to be introduced in UK after its first introduction in US) allowing competitors to launch imitative products before P&G. • P&G organization according to Jager: Bureaucratic, conformist, risk-averse and slow. • Increase the efficiency through greater cross-border integration (standardization of manufacturing processes, simplifying brand portfolios and coordinating marketing activities). Reduce the number of hierarchical levels between the CEO and front line managers. • The central problem in P&G according to Jager was lack of innovation and slow responsiveness. We do believe as well that another rationale is if a firm want to achieve growth, or sustainable growth the company must have a capability to invest, take risk and seize quickly new opportunities. As support of this philosophy or Organisation 2005 we could see the right actions like new processes to boost innovation, plant closures and extensive job losses but most importantly probably the change in the incentive system for manager.

Undoubtedly the most challenging and difficult change probably lies within the company culture itself, to change the culture it takes a lot of effort, is a long term task, that can not be done over night. 2. What factors should Lafley take into account in determining whether to continue or to abandon Organization 2005? Fail in performance this is what we have to concentrate why? More attention to the customer relationship and sale performance Emerging market need adaptation and localization of the product difficult to combne with a global organization.

Probably rate ond type of new producti introduction not succesfull meanwhile the core brand still have a good market share. Internal confidence and leadership of Jaeger too aggressive for a successful change of culture. • Past performance In 2000, it will be one year that the Organization 2005 project was ongoing. We should be able to measure whether or not it contributed to improve the situation. When looking at the result of 2000, we can see that actually, the net income even decreased by 5. 9% compared to the previous years despite the fact that the sales increased by 4. % (and with constant COGS)! So we should analyse the reason of this poor performance and understand whether it is because of some efficiency problem of the new restructuration. • Adequacy of the Organization 2005 structure to P&Gs’ coordination interfaces in the value chain of the company: can this new organization really match optimize/minimize the coordination requirements? In order to illustrate this point, let’s take 2 extreme examples: SKII and Pringles potato chips. The SKII is a typical example of product that cannot be developed in a GBU of the new Organization 2005 structure.

Because Japanese women are very demanding in term of quality of skin care products, the global R&D was unable to match the requirements of this special market. So it was no surprise that the decision of P&G was actually to get help from Japanese team to develop this product. Still we can think that some parts of the value chain can still be globalized as the below value chain of SKII analysis shows. But each time we switch from localized to globalized process and vice versa, there is a head over cost and efficiency loss (due to coordination between different teams).

We can clearly see that in this example, the new organization won’t help to achieve better efficiency and in fact even play against that purpose. On the other extreme side, if we take a product like Springles that is a quite standardized product among all the world, then there is no difficulty to have a GBU and it actually really make sense to do so. [pic] • Product Contribution to sales Another important thing to consider whether to keep Organization 2005 or not is to look at the product and brand portfolio and identify which can be globalized and which contribute most to the sales?

In fact, each product or brand has a capacity of being globalized. Some cannot at all and will definitely lead to loss of dramatic marketshare (detergent or skin care examples). Some others can be fully globalized (potato chips). And finally, the rest are in the middle and the answer is not so clear. [pic] Then the next step, it to understand what are the contribution of each product or brand to the total sales? It surely doesn’t make sense to globalize a product serving a specific market and loss its contribution if this contribution is not negligible.

The picture below shows 3 different situations where GBU structure makes senses, another situation where it doesn’t and a third situation where the answer is not clear! [pic] • Market Maturity. Actually, a product capacity of being globalized is not an intrinsic attribute of the product itself. It is also depends on the market it is serving. Mature markets are more prone of accepting globalized products. Emerging markets like China or Russia are absolutely not ready for that and need time to get used to western values. Mature Markets vs.

Emerging Markets like China or Russia not ready to accept ‘globalized’ products. Current Organization 2005 didn’t take into consideration the cases of emerging markets. • Market Situation: At that time, the market was under the influence of Internet bubble that started to burst. • Are we going through a major technology change • Are customer needs changing, is a new industry coming into existence • Cost of the reorganization together with the difficulty of implementing this reorganization • Expected improvements for the TSR Key customers like Wal-Mart or Carrefour! Will the new structure with GBUs really help to increase the sales with these key customers or will it make it more complicated? According to my understanding, this new organization should lead to a more complicated interactions with key customers as they will need to coordinate with more contact windows (7 now versus 4 initially Disagreed with Raffi, as it will be more efficient as we have MDO and GBS working together. The crisis of confidence, mostly leadership confidence, • Change Management and how to get all the manger’s units and others involved. • Stock price, relation ship with the Wall Street, will (i) be hated like Jager on Wall Street. • P&G is a very complex company with huge variety of brands and products, with 110 00 employees in 140 different countries. This complexity needed minimum requirements to the structure and more attention to the coordination within one product area. It needed to coordinate within each function and it needed to coordinate within each country. Can I create more Share holder value or Total shareholder Return with the new organisation • Does it serve my customers, will the new organisation make live easier for them • Where to play and how to win • Are the changes a threat to the resources and capabilities? 3. Advise Lafley (a) on whether to proceed with or cancel Organization 2005; (b) Whether changes to be made in the organization structure adopted under Organization 2005 (as show in Figure 8. 2). What advice would you give to Mr Lafley regarding the implementation of Organization 2005?

We will advice Lafley to proceed with a slightly modified version of Organization 2005 because we think that P&G should focus more on differentiation than on low cost as they always did in their whole history. So innovation should be a key success factor to achieve this target and the organizational structure should really motivate innovation. In order to achieve this innovation target, organizing the company so that it focuses on product makes sense. So we support the ideas of GBU by product type.

Have to work hardly in the internal consensus for the new type of organization developing and right level of coordination between the business unit involving the middle and high level management in the new orientation motivating them. However, we would also consider the cases of some emerging markets and key customers like Wal-Mart or Carrefour separately. Have a special focusing in the customer relationship in order to create to right mood and education in the customer and in the market to develop new product but also new culture.

Interesting the example of SK II and the related differences between customer in Us and japan. For emerging markets, we should consider that countries like Russia and China just recently opened their door at that time and just started to be in contact with other countries (for example, they don’t have the history of the TV series from the west that are great sources of western values). The population were not educated with tastes from western countries yet even if we can imagine that they were eager to know more about.

So for these special countries with promising market but with totally unknown market conditions and tastes, we would have created one dedicated division for each of these countries. However, we would also prepare mechanisms that will allow P&G to integrate these special divisions later in the primary organizational structure once these markets would be mature enough to accept more global products (let’s say 10 to 15 years later). For key customers, I would also pay attention to facilitate sales of our products and not make them more complex than it was before (actually, it should even be easier if we want to increase the sales).

In order to address this issue, I would create a specific department like ‘Key Account Department’ that will solely contain sales personal in charge of one particular key customer on the global and local point of view. Such person will help coordinate the different internal GBUs with their customers. Each of these persons from this department will be the unique contact window. It will be better to conduct the changes less aggressively and immediately adjust the project according to the market responds.

Further more we think the change needs better communication and buy in and how it works, or should work, should be organized an planned before, seeing that even the current CEO Lafley him self said in the case of SK-II that the management was disrupted, so he himself experienced it, which should make it “simple” for him to communicate such issue with the other management positions. Conclusion: This case puts us at the heart of business strategy and let us feels some of the different aspects to consider when changing the organizational structure of a company.

This case also gives us a good illustration of the ways a company should be organized. It gave an example of comparison between the regional divisions versus the product business units. This case also gave examples of typical situations that CEOs should face when making big changes in a company: • Internal Resistance to changes • Market expectation • Customer expectation This case also invited us to go beyond what is proposed by letting us criticizing the proposed structure and eventually presenting our own proposition.

Great case to explain how event first level company can face difficult moment if we try to change too fast or not in a proper momentum. A consumer company has anyway think to the market and liase to the market, probably the global product was succesfull for mature market with an high brand awareness and need standardize, but in the new and emerging market the strategy should be much more localize and adapted to the need and culture. Other points to mention in the conclusion: Changes are more difficult in big multinational. The task of CEO is a real challenge and not so easy.

We can also say that as the current companies grow, they will more and more face problems to change and adapt to new market situation. Isn’t it a limit that can put in danger big corporations? ———————– Product/Brand capability of being Globalized vs Localized? Where should a product be? Localized Globalized GBU: how to choose? => marginal trend, competitions, market trend, … GBU is clearly not a viable solution here GBU makes sense in this situation Localized Globalized Localized Globalized Localized Globalized P&G Product Contribution to sales