Category Archives: New Essays

Principles of communication in adult social care

Q 1.2 Explain how communication affects relationships in and adult social care setting?

A 1.2

When working in social care setting communication is a key factor, you need to be able to communicate with a wide range of people such as service users, families, members of staff, management and external professionals (i.e. GP’s, social services, nurses, consultants etc.) There are many different types of communication face to face, written, verbal, non-verbal, sign language, formal and informal. As a care worker you need to have a knowledge of the different types of communication to enable you to always meet your services user’s needs. If you cannot meet you service users need yourself for example if they speak a different language then ask management to provide and interpreter for you.

Communication is needed for all aspects of your role as a care worker it helps to build and maintain relationships with service users and colleagues. Communication helps to exchange information for example if you was about to hand over as your shift has finished you would communicate with the member of staff taking of care for your service user both verbally and in your hand over notes.

If you do not have good communication skills then service users are less likely to communicate with you and trust you which will affect you providing the best care an example of poor communication which affects the workplace is if a client is trying to tell you that they are being abused but you are not really listening, not showing and interest, not empathising with the client they are less likely to open up to you about the abuse.

Q 2.1 Compare ways to establish the communication and languages needs, wishes and preferences of an individual?

A 2.1

Firstly I would read the care plan to establish if the client has any known communication issues, if there is none I would talk to the service user. Whilst communicating with the service user I would ask questions about any problems they may have with communication watching their body language and reactions for any type of problems. For example is someone has hearing issues and they keep asking you to repeat the question or struggle to hear you I would recognise this by their body language, tone of voice and what they are saying. If I noticed this I would then speak more clearly and use a louder tone of voice for the service user to be able to hear me.

If a client was unable to communicate I would ask the family, other staff or any other professionals (audiologist, Speech and language therapist etc.) that are connected with the service user. Once I had found out the service users need I would ask the service user if this was appropriate for them and if so continue to use this type of communication. If the service user disagreed with the type of communication I suggested we would agree on another form of communication i.e. if they preferred picture cards to sign language.

Q 2.2 Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication?

A 2.2

Factors to consider when promoting effective communication are giving the client the choice to make their own decisions about the way that they communicate and the type of communication they use. For example if the client is visually impaired then tell the client all the different types of communication available and let them choose for their selves. Respecting the client’s choice and implementing it and respecting the client giving them the dignity that they are entitled to for example calling them by their chosen name Miss Mr Mrs etc.

Other factors to consider when promoting effective communication are the client’s disabilities, hearing loss, impair vision, mobility problems, speech impairment these can all affect how effective communication is. Cultural differences can affect how we communicate and the environment provided it is important to have a comfortable safe noise free environment before establishing effective communication.

Q 2.3 Describe a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs?

A 2.3

Verbal communication:

Tone and pitch of your voice, does it suit the situation or topic? A louder more direct communication maybe required if trying to talk to someone who has a hearing impairment.

Use of language is important, when talking to adults you need to keep things clear and simple, however if you are using very simple instructions this may be deemed as patronising, so it is important to choose your language carefully.

The speed in which you talk is also key. When talking to service users I would talk to them at a relatively slow speed, this way they are more likely to understand me more than if I was speaking very fast and unclearly.

Non-verbal communication:

Facial and hand gestures, again this needs to be tailored to the situation or topic.

Eye contact is an important factor as this engages the audience, keeping them focused on what you are discussing. By making eye contact you are directing your conversation at that specific person, demonstrating that you are devoting your time and are not able to be distracted as if you would by looking around.

Body language plays an important part, for example folded arms can indicate you are being defensive or not open to suggestions, whereas slouching, hands on hips, rolling of eyes and huffing can seem rude and disrespectful.

Written communication

Report, care plans, letter etc. these can be a way of communicating with someone who does not speak. Picture cards or sign language can be used for people who have a hearing impairment.

There are many other communication methods and styles that you can use to make sure you are always putting the communication and needs of your clients first.

Q 2.4 Explain why it is important to respond to an individual’s reactions when communicating?

A 2.4

It is important to respond to an individual’s reactions when communicating so that they are aware that you are listening. Responding using body language will also tell them if you are interested or not. For example if someone is telling you what they for Christmas last year and you huff and puff and role your eyes this would show that you are not really interested in what the person is saying. Response to reactions is also important to establish people’s needs and helps build and maintain relationships. If a service user can trust you they are more likely to open up to you and allow you to be a part of their care plan, whereas if the client cannot trust you they may refuse to be treated by you or communicate with you. Q 3.1 Explain how individuals from different backgrounds may use communication methods in different ways?

A 3.1

Communication can be slightly different when using it with other people from different backgrounds, it can be interpreted in different ways by different people, and this may be because they may do not speak English, if they are from a different country, or they may not understand you. If someone is religious they might have different opinions and views which can cause a communication problem but there are many different ways to communicate instead.

People from different backgrounds may use verbal communication to express what they think, however they could also use non-verbal communication to put their point across. Communication can be used in many ways by using different methods. People from different backgrounds can communicate by doing what they like best they could use body language and facial expressions to express their needs or what they want to do in the workplace.

People from different backgrounds can use communication by being confident. This shows their personality and will help the communication between them
and others around. Different backgrounds of different people can cause misunderstandings when using communicating an example of this is if two people have different first languages and are communicating they may say something that in their first language is offensive and this can be misinterpreted.

The personality can also affect the way an individual communicates. For example, if a person is shy they may not want to speak clearly and may use a little bit of verbal communication.

Q 3.2 Identify barriers to effective communication? Q 3.3 Explain how to overcome barriers to communication?

A 3.2 & 3.3

Speaking a different language: When someone speaks a different language or uses sign language, they may not be able to understand what the other person is trying to say. Sensory barriers: When someone cannot receive or pass on information because they have an impairment to one or more of their senses, the most common is hearing or seeing.

Emotional difficulties: Many of us have emotional difficulties at times and become very upset. For example you may have an argument with a member of your family or you may have had some bad news. This can affect communication by not being able to focus properly and can lead to misunderstandings and mistakes.

Health issues: When you are feeling ill, you may not be able to communicate as effectively as when you are feeling well. This can affect service users and other members of staff. Some long-term illnesses such as Parkinson’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis or Dementia also affect an individual’s ability to communicate and you need to be aware of this if you are working with these people in the community.

There are a number of factors to consider, One is the tone of your voice does
it suit the situation? With a quiet tone your elderly service user may not hear everything you are saying. If you’re using a loud tone the service might think you are stereotyping by thinking all elderly adults are hard of hearing.

The speed of the way you talk is also very important if you talk to fast your service user may not understand. You also have your Non-verbal communication which for example would be face or hand gestures this also has to suit the situation and the service user. Eye contact is also very important factor as this engages the service user, keeping them focused on what you are talking about. By making eye contact you are directing your conversation to your service user, showing them that you are devoting your time and are not able to be distracted.

Q 3.4 Describe strategies that can be used to clarify misunderstandings?

A 3.4

There are many different strategies to clarify misunderstanding here are some examples of the breakdown in communication and how to overcome them:

Written communication can be misinterpreted for example is a formal letter is sent from the NHS stating that they are unable to see a patient because a limitation at their hospital and to try a different hospital. The patient may take offence to the way it is worded or may not understand why their hospital cannot cater for them even though the procedures are carried out there. The strategy to overcome this misunderstanding would be to call the hospital and ask them to questions to clarify what the letter is explaining.

Verbal communication can be misinterpreted also for example when there is language, speech, hearing, can all affect the interpretation of verbal communication and cause misunderstandings. Strategies to overcome these misunderstanding are to speak clear and concisely.

Q 3.5 Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals
to communicate effectively?

A 3.5

There are a number of services that can be accessed to support communication. These include:
• Interpreters
• Translators
• Signers
• Advocators

There is also a range of specialist equipment.
These include:
• Induction loops
• Braille embossers and printers
• Makaton

Each local government body should provide Language Support Services, which will include British Sign Language interpreters, deaf blind interpreters, lip speakers/readers, and note takers. These services can be utilised by educational and health services through a booking system. Each local authority educational department also has access to a team of support specialists including speech and language therapists.

Support can also be found on the internet through various specialist websites, including: • The British Deaf Society
• The National Blind Children’s Society

Q 4.1 Explain the meaning of the term confidentiality?

A 4.1

Confidentiality is when personal or private information obtained from or about an individual must only be shared with others on a need to know basis with the individual’s permission. Confidentiality is important in health and social care give you guidance on the information about service users you can disclose. If a service user gives you information about themselves then they would expect you to keep the information confidential. However when the information is at risk of putting the service user in danger or if a safeguarding and protection issue confidential information can be disclosed to others. Even though this can be done it is still always in the interest of the service user to make them aware that you are disclosing their information to others.

Q 4.2 Describe ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication?

A 4.2

There are many different ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication some of these are:

Making sure that service user’s notes are not left lying around for other people to see or read. Also making sure they are under lock and key when not in use.

Computerised information should only be accessed by persons who are authorised to have access and they should be password protected, making sure no unauthorised people know the password.

Conversations with service users should not be loud enough for others to hear and any personal conversations should be in a private room with the door closed.

Adhering to policies, procedures and legal requirements regarding confidentiality within your job role.

Q 4.3 Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individual’s confidentiality and disclosing concerns to agreed others?

A 4.3

Maintaining confidentiality means being trustworthy. If someone has told you something which you are not to repeat, if and when you repeat it, you are going to damage the relationship. If you feel you need to break the confidentiality for the safety and well-being, tell the person who confided in you that you are compelled to say something. Perhaps the two of you can figure out a way to do this with the least amount of repercussions. Don’t just go behind the confiders back.

4.4 Explain how and when to seek advice about confidentiality?

A 4.4

People who have been given information in confidence, or who have acquired information which they regard as confidential, may not always be sure whether they should disclose this information or not. In these circumstances it may be sensible to seek advice from an appropriate person (e.g. a manager) on whether the matter is important enough to breach confidentiality, and if so, to whom they should report their concerns. This should be done without divulging the name of the service user. A concern for confidentiality should not prevent communication that is necessary to help service users in difficulty. Promises of confidentiality is not always appropriate or sensible to give service users who may wish to talk about personal problems. It may be necessary to say to the service users that information may be shared with others who need to know it, if this is in the best interests of the individual for example is the service user discloses that they are being abused a care workers has a duty of care to safeguard and protect them.

APUSH Gilded Age notes

Frederick Jackson Turner
The Significance of the Frontier in American History – July 12, 1893 1890 Census – no more defined frontier line; had pockets of settlement spread out Turner Thesis: spirit and success of US is directly tied to westward expansion; a turning point in American Identity American Identity:

created at the juncture between civilization and wilderness
Americans had an identity distinct from Old World
Characteristics: individualism, opportunity, democracy
SIGNIFICANCE: Turner had concluded that the first period of American History had ended (1890 – after the West)

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS TO ANSWER (potential DBQ’s!):
How would other schools of historiography view the West?
How accurate is Turner’s thesis?
What is your historiographical view of the West’s importance in American History?

Five Important Groups
1. Miners
2. Railroads
3. Ranchers
4. Farmers
5. Native Americans (Plain Indians)
Consider what brought them to the West, what brought about the conflicts and why, and how those conflicts got resolved

1) Miners
California Gold Rush 1849 lead to an influx of miners seeking fortune Placer Mining: wash debris away to get mineral
Problems – erosion, mountain collapse
Quartz Mining: go into the interior of the mountain to extract rocks and minerals Problems – explosions, cave ins, dangerous gases
SIGNIFICANCE:
produced boomtowns (which lasted as long as the gold supply did) some became skiing destinations (use debris trailings to smooth the slopes or create a mountain) others had casinos
but most became ghost towns
brought first whites, Africans, Asians out West
money made by big corporation or people involved in getting supplies to miners (the miners didn’t make much)

2) Railroads
Pull Factor: desire in to expand industry, seek new markets, send and receive resources to miners etc. Push Factor: Government subsidizes the development of a Trans-continental railroad out of fear of the threat of sectional division (East/West) Pacific Railway Act (1862) – Federal government granted land and loaned money to Union Pacific – Omaha Nebraska

Central Pacific – Cali
both sold land to settlers who would benefit from living near such a convenient transportation system Promentary Point, Utah – meeting point between the rails of Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads provided for the East a quick way to move West to mining towns (supplies, goods, people for employments of all sorts) SIGNIFICANCE:

Small towns along railroads provide water stations (for steam locomotives), coaling stations, food, lodging, mail delivery, other services Settlers set up farms and homes near railroads (access to resources) Further increase of Western settlement and flow of goods East to West

3) Ranchers
Industry and Immigration:
Because of Civil War, factories in Northeast produced guns – now they’re making railroads and steam engines Need workers, Irish immigrants flock over
More people = More food needed
Longhorn:
Brought by the Conquistadores/Spaniards (for leather)
Could survive long drives
By the end of Civil War (1865), 5 million roamed freely on the open range of Texas Worth a nickel a piece in Texas, $13.50 in Northeast
Cowboys:
Unemployed veterans of Civil War
Former black slaves
Mexicans
Job – drive cattle North
Railroad – Sedalia Trail: drive through Texas, Arkansas to Missouri; but ticks that longhorns were immune to killed the local cattle As the railroad moved further West, other trails opened:
Chisholm Trail: (to Abilene, Kansas) drive ‘em there because cattle is dying up North; cowboys not always welcomed. In 1867-1871, 1.5 million cattle driven up Chisholm Trail. Western Trail: (from Elsworth, KS) went out to middle of nowhere; saloons, hardware, clothing – Dodge City, KS The Goodnight-Loving Trail: take cattle to producers out West Ranches:

Most owned by big corporations in East or by Europeans
Conflict between ranchers over cattle
Branding: usually took place in spring, claim calves for next year’s herd Cowtowns:
Sleepy nowhere towns became rowdy towns with drunk and disorderly cowboys with $ Bring lawmen to try to keep the peace

4) Farmers
The Homestead Act (1862): Federal government gave settlers 160 acres of land ($10 filing fee) upon the deal of 5 years settlement ? get the title This combined with the Railroad Act help make cheap land openly available Railroads made it possible to transport farm products to Eastern cities
(market – beef, corn, wheat) The Great Plains once were considered too arid to farm were now open to farming because of the development of: The John Deere steel plow – strong enough to cut through tough soil The McCormick reaper/thresher – harvest vast cares of land, separate wheat/corn from stalk, stem, chaff Windmill – allowed farmers to constantly pump water from wells to irrigate crops and feed cattle Dry land farming techniques – such as plugging up cracked soil to stop loss of water Drought resistant crops

Bonanza Farms: massive farming, thousands of acres worked by a single family with the help of machines (wheat farms = 50,000 ac)

Conflict over the Open Range
As farmers settled around railroads and cowtowns (to sell food) they came into conflict with ranchers when cowboys drove their cattle through farmer’s crops Barbed Wire:
Fenced in the farms (cowboys don’t like it cause they can’t move through) Invented by Glidden 1874
Less expensive, more effective
Closes the open range
“Range Wars”:
intensified by barbed wire, but is also solved by barbed wires fenced in ranches
“Sodbusters” (farmers) vs Cowboys
Railroads?
Closing the open range

5) Native Americans
The Plains tribes lived a nomadic lifestyle based entirely upon the wandering of the Great Plains and hunting buffalo Differed from the East Coast Indians
The buffalo provided the Indians with:
Food
Shelter
Clothing
Tools
Fuel
(it’s their Wal Mart)
Conflict over resources:
Miners: found rich mineral deposits on Indian’s lands which were burial grounds Railroads: buffalo hunters killed buffalo to keep them off of the railroads and out of the way; skinned the buffalo for the hide to be used in Northeastern industrial factories. Encouraged the decimation of the buffalo Ranchers: killed buffaloes and replaced them with longhorns because they would compete for grazing spots etc. Encouraged the decimation of the buffalo Farmers: want the open range, do not want buffaloes eating their crops; scared of Native Americans. Get rid of buffaloes = get rid of Native Americans. Encouraged the decimation of the buffalo

Us Government Indian Policy
During the Civil War, there were many clashes between the US Army & the Plains Indians During Reconstruction, Congress didn’t want this conflict to get in the way of things so they made the Indian Peace Commission in 1867: 1. 2 big reservations for Indians to live on

2. agents run the reservations and its affairs – like the Freedman’s Bureau 3. US army given total authority to deal with noncompliant groups (force Indians to stay on reservations) Treaty of Medicine Lodge (1867): Southern Plains Indians (Comanches) agreed to move to reservations/Indian territory (present day Oklahoma) on the condition that the US government would stop buffalo hunters from killing buffaloes. This treaty was contradictory and was ultimately designed for self destruction. Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868): Northern Plains Indians (Sioux, Lakota, Cheyenne) agreed to move to Black Hills (South Dakota) but came into conflict with the miners there because of the discovery of gold there. Grant pursued a policy called the “Peace Policy”

1. Religious leaders (Quakers) were to “civilize” the Indians 2. Native Americans were to be assimilated
3. Indians are not allowed to hunt buffaloes; wants them to be sedentary like farmers, ranchers, miners 4. Government provided annuities (welfare)
Reasons for the Failure of the Peace Policy:
Farming/ranching is alien to the Plains culture – women were the only ones
who got involved in any type of agriculture. Telling them to be sedentary and to farm was telling warriors to be like women Warlike cultures – even the Quakers became disillusioned to try to civilize them Congress was late in paying annuities

The money was often stolen by crooked, dishonest agents who would also deliver spoiled goods Government did nothing to stop the buffalo hunters – none of people in the West wanted the buffaloes there anyways Many Indians leave the reservations to return to their nomadic lifestyle; Everyone vs Native Americans

Last of the Frontier Wars
June 27, 1874 – the Comanche clash with the buffalo hunters at the Battle of Adobe Hills. The hunters had long distant shooting rifles which put them at an extreme advantage. SIGNFICANCE: led to the Red River Campaign (which would end the Southern Plains Indians) September 28, 1874 – The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon; Quanah Parker (Indian-Caucasian) vs Colonel McKenzie (9th & 13th – buffalo soldiers). Results: Comanche must flee by foot, the army takes the horses. SIGNIFICANCE: ends the Southern Plains Indians June 25, 1876 – The Battle of the Little Bighorn; Cheyenne/Lakota are forced to move North towards Canada. The campaign in the North continues The Dawes Act (1887) – assimilated the Native Americans, extend the benefits from the Homestead Act to Native Americans; this failed because farming is not culturally accepted – no use in changing them or giving them land they won’t use to farm Battle of Wounded Knee (1890) – Sioux did ghost dance to be resistant to soldier’s bullets = obviously did not work. 200 Native Americans killed; Ends Indian resistance

Final Note
Many of the soldiers that fought the Plains Indians were immigrants or former slaves: Immigrants wanted land made available from the Homestead Act, and the Indians were just in their way Buffalo Soldiers – African Americans, never got massacred, ended resistance in Palo Duro Other Native Americans

The US Army was dependant upon Native American scouts to help them defeat the
Plains Indians After the Indian Wars ended, the reservation had one of the highest rates of enlistment in the US armed forces of any population in the US

Part Two: Industrialization and the Growth of Cities
The Rise of Industrialists and Mass Immigration

FACTORS IN INDUSTRIAL GROWTH
1. Natural Resources
Petroleum – Edwin Drake drills the first oil well in Pennsylvania in 1859 Iron (Minnesota)
Coal (Appalachians)
2. Government policies that supported industry – laissez faire (hands off) but the government subsidized the railroads …
economy increases and Westward expansion increases
3. Entrepreneurs: people who had lots of money to invest, so why not help start up factories 4. New inventions – “necessity is the mother of invention” Telegraph – increased efficiency of communication, railroad system Light Bulb – now people can work around the clock

5. Increase in population provide labor force:
immigration from foreign countries
people move from rural to urban

BUSINESS MODELS:
Vertical Integration
Horizontal Integration
purchase of companies at all levels of production
own everything from the bottom up
Ex: Ford
Purchase of competing companies in same industry (owns its competition) Spread out
Ex: General Motors, Pepsi Company

Robber Barons or Industrial Statesmen?
Robber Baron: those who benefit by crushing the poor
Industrial Statesman: successful, hard working individuals
1. John Rockefeller: the Oil industry
monopoly = trust (cartel)
Standard Oil Company
Horizontal and Vertical integration
2. Andrew Carnegie: steel Industry
“rags to riches” – immigrant from Scotland
Carnegie Steel
Bessemer Process to keep up with demands from Railroads
Vertical integration
Retired as the world’s richest man
The Gospel of Wealth – the responsibility of the rich is to be a philanthropist 3. Vanderbilt: steamboat and later bought the Railroad Industry Steamboat and railroad competed with each other anyways

4,500 miles of railroad track
4. Henry Ford: auto industry
Assembly line = standardization, mass production
Ford Motor Company
Vertically integrated
Auto prices dropped to below $500
Development of the suburbs (no longer need to live in city if you can drive) 5. J.P. Morgan: banking
“Morganization” – combined several companies to make the bank larger and more efficient; reorganize troubled businesses to make them more profitable bought Carnegie Steel in 1900 for $480 million
Panic of 1895: loaned government some money to get them out of bankruptcy (big time ballin) His death left a vacuum = Federal Reserve Bank (controlled by Congress – third national bank)

Impact of Industrialization
Rise of the Middle Class
greater comforts
easier access to goods – Sear’s General catalog, department stores less
expensive products
Development of big businesses
Political machines
Labor Unions
Urbanization – a direct result of industrialization

Working Conditions
10-12 hour days, 6 days a week, am/pm shift
Child Labor – deformity and black lungs from coal mines, textile mills; not in school = illiterate Work related dangers: injuries, chemical exposure, no insurance No minimum wage
Feeling and becoming a machine
Women, children, ethnic minorities, immigrants were paid less than white males Child labor < 15 years old
Why Stay:
Better than working on a farm, or in your old country, or sharecropping in the South, etc Better opportunity
Only job available for the unskilled
Could save enough money to buy land
Many eager to take your job if you left (competition)

Unions
Formed to help improved the conditions of the industrial workers Surplus labor = conditions aren’t good
Strikes and boycotts to try and get their way
“Illegitimate Conspiracies”
Blacklist: those who were involved in the Unions were put on this list which deemed them unfit to be hired Lockout: anyone of that blacklist could not work; workers not allowed on company property, no pay Pullman Strike: example of conflict of Union and management; 3,000 Pullman Palace Car Company workers reacted to a 25% wage cut by going on a wildcat strike in Illinois on May 11, 1894, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt. [wikipedia] American Railway Union (ARU): first industrial union in US; unionize railway workers Eugene V. Debs: locomotive fireman; leader of ARU,

Employees had to live in company town and bought goods from company store (similar to sharecropping) Depression: company had to cut back on wages, but not on prices Boycott: workers protest because they cannot afford to pay debts/bills with such low wages US government was not so hands off.

Immigration
Old Immigrants – those who came prior to Civil War (1607 – 1860) Northwest Europe (England, Ireland, France, Germany, Scandinavia) literate
skilled
Protestant
farmers
New Immigrants – post Civil War till 1950s
South and East Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Russia) Asia
illiterate
unskilled
Catholic
Jewish
came to work in factories
European flood:
1870-1900
14 million immigrants
56% of all of the world’s immigrants were going to US
Southern and Eastern Europe
timely and costly to get to a port
The Journey
$65-$100 for a ticket – steerage passage (cheapest)
papers and passports hard to obtain
emotional welfare
8-14 days
unsanitary, diseases easily spread

Arrival in America
Ellis Island, NYC (aka “Island of Tears”)
75% immigrants came to US here
where the processing of passports, documentation, etc took place WOP: without
papers (name given to Italians – the majority of immigrants) Medical Inspections: id tag, open door policy; 20% labeled for additional inspection (got quarantined) Legal Inspections:

Registry Hall: paperwork, stuff like that
32 Questions: to find out if you are a criminal; 2-3 hour wait, few denied entrance (2%)

Ethnic Enclaves
2/3 settled in urban cities:
ease into assimilation
ethnic culture mixed with certain American elements
Tenements: large high rise buildings
crowded multi-family apartment
unsanitary (no plumbing)
cities = 3rd world country nasty
Rural immigrants faired much better (familiar to these elements): Italians – California (vineyards, olive orchards)
Greek – Florida (citrus)
Polish – Mid West (pig farming, cattle ranching, dairy – sausage!) Exploitation: Political machines (corrupt organization that provided jobs, housing, police, heat, fire protection, etc. in exchange for your vote) Tammany Hall: Democratic political machine in NY headed by William Tweed (“Boss Tweed”), the party boss Thomas Nast contributed to the downfall of Tweed with his political cartoon Americanization: public schools set up to educate and Americanize the immigrant children who were working in factories

Asian Immigrants
Taiping Rebellion causes many to flee (push factor)
Gold and Railroad – many jobs available (pull factor)
most moved to Western cities
“Angel Island” – West’s version of Ellis Island (Ellis = Europe, Angel = Asia) Nativists, native born Americans, hostile to immigrants
End of “open door” – shows growing power of the population Chinese Exclusion Act 1882:
banned Chinese immigration for 10 years
renewed in 1892, made permanent in 1902, ended in 1942 (WWII – China was US’ ally) Dillingham Bill 1921:
Establish quotas for the number of immigrants that the US could accept Percentage of population from a specific foreign country is the number they will accept This was to keep the demographics the same

Impossible to enforce, never was

Part Three: Populists and Progressives
Social, Economic, and Political Reformers of the Late 19th Century

Populists
Populism: a movement to increase farmers’ political power & to work for legislation in their interest (little guys are hurt by deflation) Money Problems:
New technology increased production which made the value of money go down Railroads had high shipping costs (only means of transportation) The Grange 1869: group of cooperatives, farmer’s who were willing to work collectively to raise farm prices; had warehouses filled with what was harvested to equalize the prices. This fails, membership plummets by 1876 The Farmer’s Alliance 1876:

Lampasas, TX
South and the Great Plains
Emphasized political action – successful
Formed the Populist Party
The Populist Party (aka People’s Party)
Farmer’s Alliance and the Knights of Labor (union)
Political goal:
defeat political machines – secret ballot
direct election of senators instead of election through corrupt state representatives government ownership of railroads and banks
free coinage of silver (increase supply = inflation, helps the farmer; gold vs silver – bimetallism) graduated income tax (the more money you have, the
more tax you must pay – SOCIALISTS) The party reached its peak when they ran candidates for national offices in 1892

Coxey’s Army
Panic of 1892: massive bankruptcies and unemployment
Massillion, Ohio (1894)
Jacob Coxey: leader of an army of unemployed workers; wanted job programs, just simply wanted unemployment problems to be fixed so they could get paid Washington D.C., April 30, 1894
L. Frank Baum – The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (populist allegory) The Wizard of OZ (ounce of gold) = President McKinley
Emerald City = green for money
Wicked Witch of the East = JP Morgan Bank
Witch of the West = Wells Fargo Bank
Tin man = mechanization
Scarecrow = dumb farmer
Lion = William Jennings Bryan (populist, nominee of US President) Dorothy = Theodore Roosevelt (favored bimetallism)
Yellow brick road = gold
Silver slippers = silver
Munchkins = factory workers, the little guys!
Black/White = farm life is “bad”

Rise of Segregation
Resistance and Repression:
Sharecropping
Exodusters – 1879: great migration of freedmen to Kansas
Colored Farmer’s National Alliance and Cooperative Union (1886): Educated farmers (much like Freedmen Bureau)
Many joined the Populist Party
Many were landless whites
With many white & black farmers until many Democrat leaders (planter class) began to see them as a threat – used racism (Jim Crow Laws)

Disenfranchising African Americans
Southern states created laws and regulations circumventing the 15th Amendment, barring African Americans from voting Poll tax: $20 fee to vote (few blacks or poor whites could afford this) Literacy tests = many uneducated or schools were substantial, so none of them could pass it “Grandfather Clause” – could vote if an ancestor was on voting ranks (many African Americans could not vote on this basis because it did not apply to them) Legalizing Segregation:

Jim Crow Laws
In 1893, the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was overturned
Plessy vs Ferguson rules separate but equal
Lynchings
African American Response: created anti-lynching campaigns
Ida B. Wells: writer who crusaded against lynching; wrote for African American rights, violence shown to her because she was an embarrassment for the planters Booker T. Washington: economic goals through education and job training (money speaks = Congress will listen) He was the leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama

Had the help from philanthropists like Andrew Carnegie
W.E.B. DuBois: demand rights politically to gain equality

Importance of the Populist Party
1. Showed that the downtrodden could organize and have a political party 2. Introduced many reforms that would be enacted in the 20th Centry a. direct election of senators b. graduated income tax
3. Had a tremendous impact upon both political parties future platforms altruistic; worried about own problems
gets the ball rolling

Progressives
In contrast to the populists, they are elitists; moves forward with the ball (problems move from top to bottom) Movement created in response to the problems posed by industrialism and modern life during the Gilded Age
Progressives believed government should take an active role in solving society’s problems PROGRESSIVE GOALS:

Social – improve quality of life and improve moral standards (sometimes racist) Economic – encourage competition, break up trusts & monopolies (too much power = undemocratic) Political – make US more democratic

Leaders of Progressive movement were upper class – middle class wealthy who had a voice in society; come from both parties Muckrakers: a journalist/author who investigates and exposes political and/or social corruption (wikipedia) Upton Sinclair: The Jungle (meat industry – Meat Inspection Act 1906) Ida M. Tarbell: The History of the Standard Oil Company (monopolies) Muckraker Jon Spargo’s – The Bitter Cry of Children exposed child labor problem especially in the textile industry GOVERNMENT REFORMS: (electoral process)

Initiative – allows citizens to propose a law (petition)
Referendum – propose legislation to be presented before the citizens for the final approval Recall – voters can hold an election to remove elected officials before their term ends 16th Amendment – graduated income tax (tax is proportionate to income) 17th Amendment – direct election of senators (both passed in 1913) Prohibition: desire to ban the manufacture/sale of alcohol because of social problems – 18th Amendment (then reversed by 21st); led by the Women Christian Temperance Movement Women Suffrage:

Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony since 1840s
Woodrow Wilson pushes for this
19th Amendment – right for women to vote
Child Labor: 1.7 million in low pay, dangerous condition
Keeding-Owen Child Labor Law:
restricted number of hours a child could work
compulsory education laws

The Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
Women and children working in a high rise building
Exits were locked to keep women at their machines
Fire killed 146 people
Ladders were not tall enough to reach past the 6th floor
SIGNIFICANCE: caused people to question unrestricted practices, fire and building codes were instituted

Progressives and Big Businesses
Believed that wealth was concentrated in the hands of too few people Wanted the government to break up trust and holding companies (monopolies) and government to regulate industries that affected most Americans (railroads, utilities) Health & Safety:

The Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906 is a United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines. (wikipedia) Their job is to make work safer for employees

Improve air quality
Install fire codes
Create worker’s compensation (safety net in case of on-the-job injuries) Consumer issues – protect buyers from faulty, illegal items; regulate drugs Eugene Debs: American Socialist Party candidate; reforms

Teddy Roosevelt and the Northern Securities Case:
Breaks up railroad trust (Vanderbilt)
Rockefeller (Standard Oil ? Chevron, Mobile, Conoco, etc)
Enforce the Sherman Anti Trust Act, Interstate Commerce Act; both gave the US government authority to regulate trade between states FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) & ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) T.R.: was a republican, a top progressive, favored bimetallism Woodrow Wilson (Democrat):

Push for federal government to monitor unfair trading practices Regulate banks
Instituted the Federal Reserve Bank (like J.P. Morgan – set interest rates)

The Gilded Age
The Era in History (1866-1900) in which rapid growth of industry, expanding city population, and new inventions made the US appear to “sparkle” – coined by Mark Twain

Beneath the surface lay corruption, poverty, crime, and great disparities between the rich and the poor

Railroads – new economy and expanded federal power
Palo Duro Canyon – defeat of Southern Plains Indians
Windmill – opened Great Plains up for farming
Upton Sinclair – muckraker who wrote The Jungle
Initiative – allowed citizens to propose legislation
Inflation – prices go down, supply up
Promontory Point, Utah – where railroads met
Graduated income tax – 16th amendment
Public school – most important institution for Americanization Philanthropists – wealthy people who gave to charity
Job opportunities – pull factor
The Jungle – revealed problems with the meat-packing industry Horizontal integration – one company owns more companies of the same industry Barbed wire – solved problems with the open range
Nativism – fear that immigrants would take over
Rise of the middle class – one of the consequences of industrialization Wizard of Oz (L. Frank Baum) – allegorical book about the Populist movement Buffalo soldiers – black soldiers who fought against the Indians Ellis Island – 75% of immigrants came through here

Northern Plains Indians – Cheyenne, Sioux, Lakota
William Tweed – ran political machine
Prohibition movement – tried to ban alcohol
Electricity and petroleum – new energy sources
Ghost Dance – Sioux Indians practiced this ritual
Range Wars – barbed wire battles (??)
New immigrants – Catholic, Jews, Southern and Eastern Europeans, etc. Ghettos
– ethnic neighborhoods/enclaves
Roosevelt – passed Pure Food and Drug Act
Interstate Commerce Act – let government regulate railroads under the commerce clause Farmers – turned west into America’s breadbasket
Boomtown – when minerals were found, they popped up overnight Women’s Suffrage – Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, 19th amendment William Jennings Bryan – ran as president for two parties at the same time

?Developing your writing frame

Cut and Paste the four assessment outcomes:

1 research and write a report on current provision for 14 to 16 year olds and the legal framework in which it operates. Comment on how this has changed, evaluating its impact on your practice, and how working with the age group is affected by legislation. Include in your answer an outline of the roles of both the compulsory and post-compulsory sectors, showing how the relationship between them is evolving in your locality. 2 write an account of approaches to learning that have relevance to 14-16 year olds, and to the management of their learning. Consider the emotional development of people within this age range in your answer. 3 for an identified group of 14 to 16 year old learners, provide a reflective account ofyour planning and management of learning, your choice of techniques, and methods of assessment. Make reference to the range of techniques and methods available for managing learning and assessment.

4 Identify key aspects of your own role and responsibilities in relation to 14 to 16 year old learners, and use this as a basis for evaluating your own practice with learners of this age. Your evaluation must include ways of improving your practice. Now take each assessment outcome and add the assessment criteria to each outcome

Example:

Assessment outcome one:

Research and write a report on current provision for 14 to 16 year olds and the legal framework in which it operates. Comment on how this has changed, evaluating its impact on your practice, and how working with the age group is affected by legislation.

Include in your answer an outline of the roles of both the compulsory and post-compulsory sectors, showing how the relationship between them is evolving in your locality.

Now add the assessment criteria that applies to this assessment outcome:

• review the current provision for 14-16 year olds in the compulsory and post compulsory sectors

• analyse the relationship between the compulsory and post compulsory sectors with regard to provision for 14-16 year olds

• review the local implementation of partnerships between the compulsory and post compulsory sectors with regard to provision for 14-16 year

• review the legal framework and key legislation relating to working with 14-16 year olds olds • evaluate the impact on own practice of legislation relating to working with 14-16 year olds

Now weave in the assessment outcomes into each section of the criteria

Research and write a report on current provision for 14 to 16 year olds and the legal framework in which it operates.
review the current provision for 14-16 year olds in the compulsory and post compulsory sectors review the legal framework and key legislation relating to working with 14-16 year olds olds

Comment on how this has changed, evaluating its impact on your practice, and how working with the age group is affected by legislation.

evaluate the impact on own practice of legislation relating to working with 14-16 year olds

Include in your answer an outline of the roles of both the compulsory and
post-compulsory sectors, showing how the relationship between them is evolving in your locality.

analyse the relationship between the compulsory and post compulsory sectors with regard to provision for 14-16 year olds review the local implementation of partnerships between the compulsory and post compulsory sectors with regard to provision for 14-16 year old

Now that you have completed this you can take the next step in developing your writing frame:

Consider an Introduction (200 words) include:

Who you are, where and what you teach and a summary of what you intend to do in this essay- (the learning Outcomes)

Now add word count to each of the sections
Section one
Research and write a report on current provision for 14 to 16 year olds and the legal framework in which it operates. (600 words)
review the current provision for 14-16 year olds in the compulsory and post compulsory sectors review the legal framework and key legislation relating to working with 14-16 year olds olds Section two

Comment on how this has changed, evaluating its impact on your practice, and how working with the age group is affected by legislation. (600 words)

evaluate the impact on own practice of legislation relating to working with 14-16 year olds

Section three
Include in your answer an outline of the roles of both the compulsory and post-compulsory sectors, showing how the relationship between them is evolving in your locality. (600 words)

analyse the relationship between the compulsory and post compulsory sectors with regard to provision for 14-16 year olds review the local implementation of partnerships between the compulsory and post compulsory sectors with regard to provision for 14-16 year olds

Conclusions 300 words

You now have the writing frame for assessment outcome one

Assessment outcome two asks you to:

2. Write an account of approaches to learning that have relevance to 14-16 year olds, and to the management of their learning. Consider the emotional development of people within this age range in your answer.

Now add the assessment criteria:

review learning models that are appropriate for 14-16 year olds

analyse the stages of emotional development of 14-16 year olds

Introduction
Summarise what you will cover in this account 150 words

Section one:

Review curriculum and identify/describe models and approaches that have relevance to 14-16 year olds and to the management of their learning. (700 words)

Now analyse the stages of emotional development of 14-16 year olds and why these models and approaches support / do not support this.(700 words)

Conclusions:
Draw from key findings and recognise how they will influence future practice
(150 words) Assessment outcome three:
3. for an identified group of 14 to 16 year old learners, provide a reflective account of your planning and management of learning, your choice of techniques, and methods of assessment. Make reference to the range of techniques and methods available for managing learning and assessment.

Ok so this is a reflective account but what do you base it on? I would add a scheme of work and then reflect on this in the following areas:

Introduction (100 words)
Summary of what you are intending to do
Summary of group of learners – age, course, summary of key characteristics (add profile as appendix)

Section one (200 words)
General reflection on your planning and management of learning – what considerations do you make and why why in this order?
Section two (500 words)
Reflect on what choice of techniques available? (Chart) Reflect on what influences you in the choices you make? Could this be improved (500 words)
Section three (500 words)
Reflect on methods of assessment available (Chart) Reflect on what influences the choices you make / could this be improved

Conclusions and any implications for future practice/ personal development (200 words) Assessment outcome four

4 Identify key aspects of your own role and responsibilities in relation to 14 to 16 year old learners, and use this as a basis for evaluating your own practice with learners of this age. Your evaluation must include ways of improving your practice.

For this I would complete a chart:

Identify key aspects of your own role and responsibilities
LLUK Standard
Evaluation of your own practice
( APR Observations, Results, Learner Feedback and self)
Ways of improving your practice.

Action plan

The End

Assessment outcomes
On successful completion of this unit, candidates will be able to:

Covered in task(s)

1

• review the current provision for 14-16 year olds in the compulsory and post compulsory sectors

1

• analyse the relationship between the compulsory and post compulsory sectors with regard to provision for 14-16 year olds

1

• review the local implementation of partnerships between the compulsory and post compulsory sectors with regard to provision for 14-16 year olds

2

• review learning models that are appropriate for 14-16 year olds

2

• analyse the stages of emotional development of 14-16 year olds

1

• review the legal framework and key legislation relating to working with 14-16 year olds

4

• analyse own role and responsibilities in relation to working with 14-16 year olds

1

• evaluate the impact on own practice of legislation relating to working with 14-16 year olds

3

• discuss ways of managing the learning of 14-16 year olds in the learning environment

3

• use techniques and strategies to manage the learning of 14-16 year olds in the learning environment

3

• plan learning sessions to meet the needs of 14-16 year olds integrating the key skills of communication, application of number and ICT as appropriate.

3

• use a range of teaching and learning approaches that are appropriate for
14-16 year olds

3

• review a range of assessment methods that are appropriate for 14-16 year olds

3

• use a range of assessment methods that are appropriate for 14-16 year olds

• use regular reflection and feedback from others, including learners, to evaluate own practice in working with 14-16year olds, making recommendations for modification as appropriate

Unit content
Centres should include the following in the delivery of this unit • Government and local policies, regulations and legislation relating to the education of young people in this age group, including: o 14-19 Education and Skills White Paper

o Higher Standards White Paper
o Youth Matters Green Paper
• 14-19 Implementation plans (Dept for Children, Families and Schools, and local) • Every Child Matters
• Children Act 2004
• SENDA
• Local provision and prospectuses for 14-19 year old learners • Bullying and behaviour policies
• Qualifications appropriate to the age range
• Essential skills of communication, application of number and ICT • Inclusion
• Recording and reporting arrangements
• Learning support provison
• School and other learning environments for this age range • Development –
principles and characteristics relating to the age group • Self-image and social factors influencing learning for this age group

Diploma in

River Restoration – Soft Engineering The River Cole, Oxford

River Restoration – Soft Engineering
The River Cole, Oxford
The River Cole forms part of the
border between the counties,
Oxfordshire and Wiltshire. It is a
tributary of the River Thames and
joins it near Lechlade. Many mills
have altered the river by
straightening and polluting it. Much
of its upper course has been built
over due to urbanisation and so the
exact location of the source is
unknown. It also ?ows through
National Trust land.
The River Cole had become very
polluted and needed restoration.
Restoration is returning a river to its
natural state after arti?cial
alteration. The river needed
restoration in order to change the
water course, improve the water
quality and manage the bank-side
vegetation. In 1994, River
Restoration Project was set up in
order to show how contemporary
restoration techniques could help
damaged ecosystems thrive. The
project was run by the RRP (River
Restoration Project), the
Environment Agency, English
Nature, the National Trust, the
Countryside Commission and the
EU. Using the EU LIFE money,
three demonstration projects were set up, helping to restore over a 2km stretch of the River. The project was completed in 1996.
In order to bring the river bed back in line with the ?oodplain, the river bed below Coleshill Bridge was raised. More gravel rif?es (fast ?owing midstream ridges) were introduced, as well as some small weirs (small barriers allowing pools to form behind them). Due to the redevelopment of the river bed, it ran at a higher level than a large stretch of the river. A new meandering channel was cut allowing the water to travel at the same height. Parts of the old river were kept and acts as backwaters. During high ?ows, this provides shelter for ?sh, birds and insects, adding to the growing biodiversity of the river. The meanders also cause more regular ?ooding of the neighboring ?elds, creating water meadows and increasing agricultural productivity.

The ancient course of the River Cole has been able to be recreated. This is due to the ?oodwaters, caused by meandering, restoring the ?ood meadows along the western side of the Cole Mill. The Cole Mill is hoped to be put back into occasional operation by the

RRP. However, the water levels in the stream ?owing near the mill must be raised in order for this to be possible. They plan to develop the River Leat (the feeder stream – the tributary that empties in to the River Cole) into a long lake. The plan for wet pasture and reed beds along the sides of the river will accompany this development. These will contribute in cleansing the streams that have been polluted by silt, fertiliser and treated sewage.

The restoration has many bene?ts. It has allowed riverside organisms and wetland wildlife to thrive in the river and on the ?oodplain, playing a huge part in nature conservation. Fisheries now have an greater numbers of ?sh of different species. Due to installation of vegetation, there has been an increased interception of pollutants. Sediment has also been naturally settling on the ?oodplain and river bed. The restoration also acts as a ?ood defence. Due to the enlarged ?oodplain and the backwaters created by the old river, additional ?ood storage has been created. The restoration has also helped the attraction of recreational activities near the river. The natural landscape created by the restored river has received strong public support. Therefore, the River Restoration Project has been a success for the River Cole. This is thanks to the clear environmental bene?ts. Although the changes had to be paid for, there are economic bene?ts to the restoration. The surrounding landscape is now seen as a much more pleasant environment and so people are more likely to pay for recreational activities to do with the river. The social bene?ts are also clear. The cleaner waters of the river are both aesthetically and morally pleasing to general society. This leads to happier locals as their river is being taken care of.

Military VS Civilian Compensation

The advantages of a career in the U. S. military greatly outweigh working in a civilian career when considering compensation such as education, salary, health care, and retirement. In today’s economy, everyone is looking to receive the most from his or her employer. A person wants a salary that can provide for his or her family, a healthcare plan with little out-of-pocket cost, retirement benefits to plan for the future, and an education that makes it all that possible.

The military offers exemplary tuition assistance and salary when benefits such as the basic housing allowance are taken into consideration. In the same way, the military’s retirement plans and health care benefits are superior to that of civilian employers because of its low cost. The following will compare military compensation to civilian compensation, and why a career in the military provides a superior benefit package. Although there are some benefits to civilian compensation packages, the military offers the best educational program. Few civilian employers offer tuition reimbursement for employees.

Those that do offer tuition reimbursement; require that the employee pay the cost of tuition up front and complete the class before receiving reimbursement. The employee must also maintain a certain grade point average (GPA) to qualify for tuition reimbursement. Once an employee has completed his or her education, the employer often requires the person to remain employed for a certain amount of time after receiving tuition reimbursement. If the employee terminates employment before the agreed upon timeframe, the employee may have to repay tuition reimbursement funds, (Smith, 2008).

Unlike civilian employers, the military offers a superior education program called the GI Bill. The GI Bill pays full tuition and fees to the school, a monthly housing allowance, and an annual books and supplies stipend, (U. S. Department of Veteran Affairs, 2011). In the same way, The GI Bill requires that the service member maintains a certain GPA and consequently, if a service member fails to complete or pass a class, he or she must reimburse the Veteran Affairs Educational Department. An additional advantage of The GI Bill is the ability to relinquish benefits to a spouse or a child.

Therefore, by choosing a career in the military a person has many more opportunities to advance his or her education versus choosing a civilian career, where educational opportunities are limited. Admittedly, there are some benefits to the civilian compensation structure, the total military compensation package is better. According to “Entry Level Salary” (n. d), the average salary for an entry-level civilian position is $37,000. 00 per year, whereas as entry-level military base salary is $16,000. 00 per year, (Dyer, 2008). Compensating for low salaries, the military offers sign on bonuses of up to $40,000.

00, (The Scoop On Army Enlistment Bonuses, 2010), basic housing allowances, basic allowance for subsistence, overseas pay when stationed in another country, and hazard duty pay when deployed to a hazardous theater. Another significant difference between the two employers is how wage increases and promotions are received. The majority of civilian employers use annual performance reviews to reward employees with a pay raise or a promotion whereas military service members must meet time in service, time in grade, performance and education standards to receive a promotion and a raise.

In conclusion, the military does receive a better compensation package when bonuses, basic housing allowance, and other itemized pay are taken into consideration. While civilian and military employers both offer similar retirement plans, military employees have a more cost-efficient plan. Civilians have two types of retirement plans to choose from: a defined-benefit plan and a defined-contribution plan. Defined-benefit plans have a pension of some kind that the employer pays for and a defined-contribution plan is typically a 401k that an employee invests his or her own money in to, (The CNA Corporation, 2008).

Becoming eligible for a defined-benefit plan requires that employees work for the company for a minimum of five years; however, retirement payouts are larger the longer an employee stays with a company. Civilian employees must also wait until at least age 62 to retire and can retire anytime between the age 62 and 70; however, retirement benefits are reduced when an employee retires early. Military retirement plans are very different from their civilian counterparts, in that military service members do not invest any money into their retirement plan.

After 15 years of service a military employee can choose between two plans: a standard High-3 plan or a Redux retirement plan. The standard High-3 plan bases retirement pay on the highest average basic pay for 36 months of a service member’s career. Choosing the Redux retirement plan, a service member will receive a $30,000. 00 bonus, a percentage-based annuity, and basic pay. Military employees can retire after 20 years of service, so the average age of a service member at retirement is age 40. Another remarkable benefit that military service members can use for retirement is a thrift savings plan that resembles a civilian 401k.

The most significant difference in a thrift savings plan is that the military does not match any employee contributions. By not matching what a service member invests into a thrift savings plan the employee can contribute more money into a tax-deferred plan than he or she could contribute to an individual retirement account, (The CNA Corporation, 2008). By not contributing to a retirement plan, military service members will save more money and be able to invest more toward a future than civilian employees.

Although military and civilian employers both offer health care benefits, the benefits offered by the military are more cost efficient. Civilian employer’s health care packages require an employee to pay an average annual premium of $13,000. 00 to cover a family’s health care. Employees must also incur the cost of copays, an amount a person pays at the time of service; and deductibles, an amount that the insured person must meet before health benefits are used. When choosing a doctor, hospital, or specialist; a civilian healthcare plan has several limitations to overcome.

On the contrary, active duty service members pay no premiums, copays, or deductibles for health care benefits. Unlike civilian employers, the military offers health care benefits to reserve (part-time) service members, veterans, and retired personnel at low-cost, affordable rates and service members can use any doctor, hospital, or specialist that accepts TRICARE, the military’s main healthcare provider. The government is working on raising the standards of civilian health care to the more cost-efficient plan the military has incorporated; however, there is still much to accomplish.

In conclusion, when choosing a compensation package based on education, salary, retirement, and health care; the military offers a superior compensation package than that of a civilian career. Choosing a military career will not only provide compensation and health care to take care of a family, it will provide a retirement plan for the future and an education to better oneself. Most of all, when looking at civilian and military compensation packages side-by-side a potential employee can determine that the best option is a military career for its stability and cost-efficient compensation packages.

References Dyer, P. (2008). Military V. s Civilian Pay. Retrieved from http://www. milspouse. com/military-vs-civilian-pay. aspx Entry Level Salary. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. bestsampleresume. com/salary/entry-level. html Jeffries, M. (n. d). Deductibles and Copays. Retrieved from http://health. howstuffworks. com/medicine/healthcare/insurance/deductible-copay. htm National Conference of State Legislatures. (2011). Health Insurance Premiums and Increases. Retrieved from http://www. ncsl. org/default. aspx? tabid=14514 Smith, L. (2008).

Tuition Reimbursement An Employee Perk. Retrieved from http://www. investopedia. com/articles/pf/08/tuition-reimbursement. asp#axzz1ZqFShpY8 The CNA Corporation . (2008). Comparing Military and Civilian Compensation Packages. Retrieved from http://www. dtic. mil The Scoop on Army Enlistment Bonuses. (2010). Retrieved from http://www. military. com/recruiting/bonus-center/news/scoop-on-army-enlistment-bonuses U. S. Department of Veteran Affairs. (2011). The Post-9/11 GI Bill. Retrieved from http://www. gibill. va. gov/benefits/post_911_gibill/index. html

Home birth vs hospitalized births

In the early 1900’s and for years before then, almost every single birth that occurred happened inside the home and was the norm. Now a days it’s the opposite. In the late 1960’s that percent dropped down to only 1% of births happening at home instead of a hospital. The dramatic change in at home births is caused by the advance in technology and medicine this world has experienced since then. Women have so many choices when it comes to giving birth now. They can decide how they want to have the baby, and where. Birth can happen anywhere; at home, in a birthing center or in a hospital. It’s all up to the woman. A woman might want look into the risks and benefits of each before deciding which is for her.

Although home births are still very rare, we have seen an increase since 2004 and many woman today are looking into the idea of home births. A woman who is having a healthy pregnancy so far with no complications or worries, might look into home births, otherwise giving birth at home could be very dangerous if there isn’t a nurse or midwife present. Woman who have any heart problems or high blood pressure should consider other options as well. Even if the partner does not fully agree with the idea of home birth, this option may not be for her. Some of the perks or benefits of giving birth at home is obviously, that the woman can have anybody in the room with her during this time such as friends and family. This making the process much easier with many people to help give encouragement and emotional support as well as people around to help with anything the mother might need and the midwife might require help with. Another benefit is the immediate bonding and breastfeeding to the child. The sooner the mother is allowed to hold her child and breast feed him or her, the faster the child receives important antibodies it needs to fight off any disease. “Home birth can be significantly easier on your bank account. The average uncomplicated vaginal at home births costs 60% less then at hospital births” ( American Pregnancy Association).

Although at home births are the most natural way to have a baby, there are some risks. In a very large recent study investigators at New York Presbyterian Medical center reviewed data from about 13 million of 17 million births and found that babies who were born at home were ten times more likely to be still born and four times more likely to suffer from seizures and other neorlogical defects compared to the babies who were born in hospitals. Even though ten percent of all babies who were born still have survived, they have suffered many very major health problems. Most at home births do have a nurse or midwife available to deal with any unexpected situations during birth, many feel it is preferable to have a whole team of doctors and specialists ready and available for any situation at any given time.

Birthing centers are the second most natural way to give birth for those looking for natural birth options. Although some birthing centers are associated with and may even be located inside a hospital, birthing centers differ in the fact that they do not provide C- sections, or inducement with Oxytocin. This being considered a benefit to woman looking for natural ways to give birth. Another benefit of birthing centers are that although it may not look like a hospital and may very well be a house, there are always more nurses and a doctor on call for any complications that may arise so the woman can feel safer without having to give birth at home and deal with any repercussions. With birthing centers there is always that sense of control and safety without being hooked up to an IV and given medications. The baby will also benefit because he or she will not be taken away at any moment for medical examinations, everything happens in the room with the mother present. Cost also plays a factor in chosing a birthing home, because they will not use any medications on you and they do not keep you longer than need be, the cost is always cheaper than from hospital births.

The only real risk about Birthing centers is that if you are a high risk mother, meaning your pregnancy isn’t completely safe, your baby has a condition or you have a condition anything can happen. But every birthing center runs tests before they accept you anyway. So unless something wasn’t caught when they run the tests on you, your pretty safe. “You can start by calling a birth center and talking to one of the caregivers about your health history. They’ll ask you, for example, whether you have certain pre-existing medical problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes and if you’ve had a cesarean delivery or some other invasive uterine surgery.” (Baby Center)

As mentioned before, hospitals can be an option for those women who do not mind getting medication, being induced or having C sections. Or maybe for a woman who doesn’t think they can handle the pain without help from medications. Because natural birth and at home birth is not for every woman. The obvious benefits being that a woman may feel safer in a hospital setting. More doctors available and more specialists ready for anything can also be a benefit to some women. The feeling of being safe is the biggest benefit of a hospital birth.

But the risks can be medications that can interfere or cause more damage than help. Maybe some women prefer not to have a huge needle inserted in their spine and they’re child being vacuum extracted. “In their rush to prevent problems that aren’t happening, hospital personnel may aggressively push procedures and drugs that can actually cause problems. Pitocin can cause uterine contractions so strong that they stress the baby and cause fetal distress. IV narcotic drugs can affect an infant so strongly that he might not breathe at birth”(Pathways of Family Wellness).

So in conclusion, with so much knowledge around and so much technology and medicinal advancements, it is good to know what kind of birth a woman might like. Because it is up to the woman to choose what is in her and her child’s best interest and what may sound good to one woman may not sound to good to another. Every woman must educate herself and choose whats best for her.
Work Cited

“Home Birth.” American Pregnancy Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2014

“Birth Centers: Alternatives to Hospitals.” BabyCenter. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2014

Falcao, Ronnie. “Dangers of Hospital Births: Why Birthing in a Hospital Can Cause More Problem’s than It Solves.” Pathways to Family Wellness Magazine. N.p., 1 Sept. 2009. Web. 21 Jan. 2014.

Balance Scorecard method used in Cattaraugus Country ReHabilitation Center

INTRODUCTION:
Cattaraugus County ReHabilitation Center had done an effective job of implementing a balance scorecard approach in a fashion that reflects their organizational mission and vision MAIN BODY:
Although the BSC method has been used in the for-profit organizations for many years I believe that ReHabilitation Center has made it work for their organization. There was a lot of push back from the people who work at the center when it was first introduced, they believed it was just another fly-by-night approach that would just fail but as the new Director of Strategic Management slow got the upper management to take a closer look and to start helping adapt the BSC method to their organization.

Since the BSC wasn’t designed for the not-for-profit ReHabilitation Center had to do a bit of work to get everything working right and after a while they were able to get the BSC to work for their organization. There are four score card quadrants that ReHabilitation Center uses they are; Perspective, Strategy, Operations, Core Indicators/Measures. They then broke that down to five different parts of the organization under Perspective, there is; consumers, financial, operational, learning, and one that isn’t defined but seems to be consumer relations and customer service. ReHabilitation Center has seen great benefits from adapting the BSC to the center but the greatest benefit maybe that the personnel within the center has noticed how much more encompassing process that strategic planning is and not merely looking at a long-term plan. They now understand that is it necessary to align each are of the Center with the overall strategic objectives. Another benefit is that the Center has been able to develop metrics and link them to the strategic plan. The Center has begun to focus on the importance of interrelationships among the perspectives in the BSC and has enabled worker in the Center to see things they had not thought about in the past and relate them to the BSC. Every year they update the BSC they have set into place to and make sure they are still following along with it and making any necessary changes to either the scorecard or to the organization. With everyone being involved within the organization of the strategic planning they have the ability to make sure that the strategic plan is being followed or seeing what changes need to be made on a consistent bases.

CONCLUSION:
“The conceptual framework of the Balanced Scorecard has been implemented and utilized effectively for years in a large number of for-profit organizations. More recently, the model has been effectively utilized in not-for-profit organizations as well. In this paper the authors have described how the Balanced Scorecard approach has been implemented in a ReHabilitation Center. In implementing the Balanced Scorecard approach, the ReHabilitation Center has placed equal emphasis on the consumer perspective and the financial perspective. This equal focus is based upon the necessity of the Center to carry out its primary mission for its consumers (individuals with developmental disabilities) as well as the necessity to maintain financial stability within the Center. The emphasis on both of these perspectives has become a necessity in order for the Center to efficiently and effectively serve its customers. While the use of the Balanced Scorecard in the long range planning process for the Center is relatively new, the process has been accepted by the management of the organization. The challenge ahead for the Center is to continue to develop outcome measures for the individual departments within the Center and tie these outcome measures to the strategic objectives of the Center. It is recognized this is an extremely difficult process as real outcomes are not easily measurable. The formulation of outcome measures is a continuous development process. It is felt this process will definitely enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the ReHabilitation Center in the long run (Martello, 2008).”

REFERENCES

Martello, M., Watson, J., Fischer, M., (2008). Implementing a balanced scorecard in a not-for-profit organization. Journal of Business & Economics Research. 6(9), 67-80. Retrieved from: http://journals.cluteonline.com/index.php/JBER/article/view/2471/2517

Child-rearing Practices and Parenting Styles

Every aspect of one’s life has a distinct effect on his well being. This aspect can possibly be from emotional, environmental, physical, to social aspects of life. Family is connected and a part of each aspect, hence why the family can never be excluded in everyone’s life. Looking more into the influences of the smallest unit of the society, there are many factors that contribute to the impact brought by this agent that seeks for attention. One of these factors that affect an individual’s personality is the way his parents raise him up. Parenting in the early years is an exciting but challenging time, it is never an easy task. Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child aside from the biological relationship, it dwells on how a parent or a guardian in some cases brought up a child providing his needs, ensuring safety, disciplining, showing love and affection. Parenting in simple words is guiding and supporting your child into an outstanding life until he is old and capable enough to do it by himself. How is Parenting Usually Occurs Nowadays in Terms of Disciplinary Strategies?

The rapid phase of time is slowly changing the customary and conservative practices of raising a child inside a Filipino family. Base from what the elders often told the youngsters, the way of upbringing they had experienced during their childhood into adulthood life was a thousand times strict compare to what the generation as of today undergo. Looking back to the time of our grandparents, the way their own parents raise them was too old-fashioned and superstitious. According to some old folks their parents usually have set rules that once a single one is broken will immediately result to a punishment for them to learn from and remember. An old lady said that in their household her father used to set a rule that requires
every member of the family particularly the children will have to do their designated chores, and if forgotten or neglected they will receive five to ten times hit on their hands using a very thin stick. Since there is no law against such action back that time, it was a norm to have rules with assigned punishments in a regular Filipino threshold. At the present day, laws against violence are widely implemented rendering people to cause physical pain or assault. From each respondent of the parenting interview conducted, there are still rules being enforced in every household. Only that these rules are what can be called fundamental or basic rules such as asking permission before leaving, attending to their household task (if they have), the usual sleeping and curfew time for the younger children, prioritizing studies all the time, etc.

According to a grandfather whom stands as a guardian to his daughter’s children, these kind of rules have to be enforced to ensure their safety, health, and also as an opportunity to train the younger children on following rules. However, when asked to rate themselves on a scale of one to ten of how strict they are towards their children (ten being very strict), majority of the respondents appear to be lax to their children giving five, six and seven as the highest rate. They claimed that they don’t have to be very strict towards their kids because they already know what the consequences are awaiting for them and simply because adults pose as a good example to them. In relation with the strictness of parents, the rules, and the suitable punishments, parents were asked how they discipline their children once they commit a mistake or break a rule. A working parent and mother of two teenage boys said that if a mistake was committed, she usually ask them to sit, explain what was wrong of their action, lecturing them why is it inappropriate and should be avoided and last, remind them to never do it again. Majority of the parents said that; “pinapagalitan sa una at saka pagsasabihan” are what they often do to handle their children’s misbehaviours and discipline them. While some says that it takes a little threatening of taking away things like cell phone or reducing allowance for them to think twice before repeating the same mistake. Spanking

Some parents claimed that although they strongly disagree of spanking or any other cause of physical pain as a method of discipline, there are times where physical act cannot be avoided because of several reasons. For instance is during times where in the parent worries to much about the safety of his child due to leaving without permission, resulting to releasing anger through spanking. A widow said that; “minsan talaga hindi rin maiiwasan na makasakit ka (e.g. kurot) dahil hindi makontrol ang emosyon mo gaya sa mga panahon na marami kang iniisip o problema tapos nadagdagan pa ng pag-aalala sa anak mo”. Although some physical act cannot be avoided sometimes, parents do not recommend this type of disciplinary method and as much as possible according to them should be avoided because it will only bring trauma, fear, and might drive the child into violence. Child- Rearing Practices for Warmth and Nurturance

All dimensions of maternal and paternal nurturing and involvement were positively related to positive characteristics of peer relationships, self-esteem and life satisfaction (Rohner, Khalique, & Cournoyer, 2005). Through nurturance of parents, children develops a sense of security that enables them to grow up with confidence and which serves as their foundation in life. Refenrences

Pareting. (n.d.) retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ The Effects of Parental Nurturance and Involvement on Peer Relationships and Psychosocial Functioning of Young Adults (Maria Reid). Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/844461/The_Effects_of_Parental_Nurturance_and_Involvement_on_Peer_Relationships_and_Psychosocial_Functioning_of_Young_Adults 10 Most Effective Parenting Practices. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blog.sfgate.com/sfmoms/2010/11/22/10-most-effective-parenting-practices/

Psychoanalysis of Hamlet

There are always three sides to a coin when it comes to psychology. Two being the heads and tails, the other being the thickness of the coin represented here by the why factor. No action is ever considered to be an accidental behavior, thus making Hamlet an intriguing subject of analysis. Critics of William Shakespeare’s play Hamlet often debate the cognitive processes of young Hamlet’s mind. To examine Hamlet through a psychological perspective, one must use knowledge of behavioral psychology, which is the study of behavior that reveals inner thoughts.

Hamlet is a complex character full of deep emotions and developmental problems it is revealed through his actions, thoughts, and words portrayed during the play. Traumatic experiences in a person’s life can have serious mental repercussions, such as disconnection from others, self-blame, or permanent mental instability. Accordingly, Hamlet’s behavior demonstrates textbook symptoms of emotional and psychological damage. With the loss of his father, and the quick remarriage of his mother, the dramatic changes in the familiarity of life become the triggers for Hamlet’s change in behavior.

These psychological triggers are very relevant in patient cases today such as the remarrying of a parent, the death of close friend, or development during adolescence. The triggered behaviors become dangerous, as the ability of being able to confide in someone else does not seem a possibility to Hamlet. Losing a loved one is never easy, in Hamlets case the loss leads to a downward spiral of behavior that ultimately affects many different people in his kingdom. This problem of seeking comfort or advice in times of need is crucial for the development during adolescence.

Psychologists agree that bottling up emotions can cause explosive and irrational behavior, such as in the case of Hamlet. “Madness in great ones must not unwatched go. ” A person’s actions revel to the world what is going on in his or her mind to a tremendous extent. Hamlet’s actions in the play depict a mix of complex planning with sporadic displays of mental instability. Such actions such as the hesitation of killing Claudius, the murder of Polonius, and Hamlet’s interactions with Ophelia reveal Hamlets true mental state. Many critics have scrutinized the delay of Hamlet not killing Claudius over the years.

“Freud offered what seemed to many a decisive answer to this riddle for the ages: that Hamlet is stymied by the weird coincidence of Claudius’s crime with his own oedipal wishes. ” (Kilgore) This quote represents the deep internal conflict of Hamlet’s actions because of his obsession with his mother’s sexual behavior. “Hamlet is able to do anything but take vengeance upon the man who did away with his father and has taken his father’s place with his mother — the man who shows him in realization the repressed desires of his own childhood” (Kilgore).

This quotation suggests that Hamlet wanted to be like Claudius subconsciously. In addition, this quote answers why Gertrude’s quick remarriage to Claudius is taken so heavily by young Hamlet. “Freud considered this complex the cornerstone of the superego and the nucleus of all human relationships. ” (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia) Next, the action of killing Polonius is one example of Hamlet’s temporary insanity. Moments after Hamlet fails to kill Claudius as he prays because he is unshriven; he slays Polonius under the impression it was Claudius.

The contradictory nature of these two decisions shows in behavioral psychology that Hamlet is emotionally unstable. This action also demonstrates that aggression has taken over reasoning. Emotions are one of man’s greatest strengths but can cause the greatest downfalls. For example, In Hamlet, Polonius’s murder eventually leads to Hamlets death at the hands of Polonius’s son. Hamlets lack of cognitive reasoning ultimately conflicts with his short-term plans as Hamlet is sent away from the kingdom by the man who he is trying to murder.

This shows that the catastrophe occurs as a result of instinctive reactions rather than pre-meditation. “To inhibit actively one’s behavior is stressful and disease related; when individuals do not or cannot express thoughts and feelings concerning a traumatic event (i. e. , when they engage in behavioral inhibition), there is an increased probability of having obsessive thoughts about the event and of having illnesses in the long run” (Kelly). Keeping secrets from people or being burdened by others secrets is an action that can be harmful in every aspect of health.

Hamlets action of keeping secrets from others is representative of his mistrust in people. Hamlet has no one to confide in which leads to irrational decisions and obsession. Most psychologists agree that having someone to confide in is crucial in the developmental process. The act of not revealing such traumatic information destroys Hamlet from a mental perspective and causes Hamlet to slip in and out of sanity. The relationship between Hamlet and Ophelia is an example of the destructive nature secrets can cause.

Good relationships are built on the fundamentals of trust and communication; neither of which is demonstrated in their relationship. Hamlet’s subconscious mistrust in the ability of people to keep secrets is projected into the communication of their relationship. Ophelia thinks that Hamlet has gone insane, and this lack of communication drives her into madness and her death. Secrets can inadvertently destroy many people, making them more dangerous through the subconscious influences. All authors project their own life experiences and thoughts subconsciously in to their literature.

“Shakespeare had a son named Hamnet who died of the bubonic plague years before the play Hamlet. ”(Wheeler 127-153) It is through this loss of Shakespeare’s own child that the play takes on a deeper psychological aspect. Hamlets “to be or not to be” soliloquy can be viewed as a projection into the troubles facing Shakespeare during his own life. The loss of a loved one is a powerful influence and subconsciously can cause feelings of depression and suicide. This soliloquy is one of the most recognized worldwide due to its contemplation of life and death due to the struggles that face Hamlet.

“To be, or not to be–that is the question: Whether ’tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune or to take arms against a sea of troubles and by opposing end them”. (Shakespeare) Hamlet is clinically depressed and overwhelmed by the troubles in his life. Not even being able to kill the murderer of his father, he is unlikely that to kill himself. “Shakespeare presents us with a vivid recital of the thought processes of a man making up his mind about a critical step in his life”.

(Kilgore) Thus many people believe that hamlet is overthinking the problem. Thus if this soliloquy was recited to a psychiatrist he would recommend anti-depressant medication. Contemplating life and death is a process that we all do at different points in life. However, it is the manner in which we approach our lives and deaths that define us as individuals. Hamlet has received a liberal education; thus his learned critical thinking and questioning about every action causes obsessive self-criticism. Hamlet’s soliloquy of Act 2 Scene 2 shows his

innermost feelings of self-disgust about his inaction. “But I am a pigeon-livered and lack gall to make oppression better, or ere this I should have fattened all the regions kites with this slave’s offal. ” (Shakespeare) Thus, this harsh self-criticism leads to Hamlet making irrational decisions. In teenagers the frontal lobe is still in the developmental stages, and affecting his self-perception in addition to his decision making. Hamlet is the perfect storm of decisions based on pathos rather than logos.

Hamlet’s decisions, although sometime requiring calculation, often are unrealistic and impetuous representing the trial and error method of learning. Hamlet’s words are invaluable to the shaping of his character. His attitude towards the murder of Polonius disconnects him from the norms of society. Making jokes about the body of someone whom he just murdered demonstrates almost a psychopathic tendency brought about by intense levels of stress. In addition to this, Hamlet is in a position where his actions do not have repercussions evidenced by the town looking the other way on his actions.

The psychological effect of having no consequences for actions starting at a young age can have disastrous effects of the development during adolescence; and often in cases can lead to the development of Oppositional defiance disorder children. Children with ODD “have little (or no) regard for what their parents or society expect of them. ”(Abraham) Hamlet does not care about how he should behave in society and does as he pleases. Hamlet feels entitled to manipulate the lives of others for his own personal success and has no regard for anyone’s welfare but his own.

Hamlet was set up for failure in societal norms from childhood. Other insights into Hamlet’s mental state can be examined through Hamlet and Ophelia’s relationship. The words” I loved Ophelia forty thousand brothers/ could not with all their quantity of love make up my sum. ” (Shakespeare 296). Hamlet is under false pretenses of what love means due to his adolescence, demonstrated by his harsh words to Ophelia and inability to communicate his distresses and concerns with her. In addition Ophelia’s and Hamlets relationship is skewed by how he perceives own mother and women in general.

This is demonstrated by Hamlet’s command “Get thee to a nunnery,” which reveals that he holds the belief that all women are whores. Nunnery was a colloquium, which meant brothel in Shakespeare’s day. The projections of past experiences to present experiences dramatically affect his relationships. Hamlet’s unkind attitude and words to others ultimately affect the lives of people around him substantially. In conclusion, Hamlets complexity and behavior is attributed to adolescence and going through life crises that trigger developmental and textbook psychology issues.

Using Hamlets actions, thoughts, and words gives the reader a microscope for further examination the character. Shakespeare was a master of creating complex characters, some based on his real life experiences. Hamlet’s reactions to the changes in hi+s life much reflect the type of behavioral changes people in real life experience after similar trauma. Hamlet has been a popular subject for psychoanalysis since the discipline became popular. Works cited Abraham, Kim. “Parenting ODD Children and Teens. ” n. page. Print. Kelly, Anita E. , and Jonathan J. Yip. “Is Keeping A Secret Or Being A Secretive Person Linked To Psychological Symptoms?.

” Journal Of Personality 74. 5 (2006): 1349-1370. Sociological Collection. Web. 6 Apr. 2013. Kilgore, John. “Hamlet In The Closet. ” Vocabula Review 11. 1 (2009): 1-9. Literary Reference Center. Web. 6 Apr. 2013. “Oedipus Complex. ” Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2013): 1. Literary Reference Center. Web. 6 Apr. 2013. Shakespeare, William. Hamlet (The New Folger Library Shakespeare). Simon ; Schuster; New Folger Edition, 2003. Wheeler, Richard . “Death in the Family: The Loss of a Son and the Rise of Shakespearean Comedy. ” 51. (2000): 127-153. Print.

Uniform Commerical Code (UCC)

Introduction
The UCC refers to the Uniform Commercial Code which originally created in year 1952 by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and the American Law Institute, which are two national nongovernmental legal organizations (Steingold, 2013). These two private entities recommend that the 50 state governments adopt the UCC; however, it does not become law unless it’s enacted by the state. The UCC is a “comprehensive statutory scheme which includes laws that cover aspects of commercial transactions” (Cheeseman, 2012, p. 161). The UCC divided into nine main articles; general provisions; sales and leases, negotiable instruments, bank deposits and collections, funds transfer, letters of credit, bulk transfers/bulk sales, documents of title, investment securities and secured transactions (Steingold, 2013). The UCC contains many fundamental rules with over a hundred different sections with the two main provisions being the UCC article 2 (sales) and article 2a (leases). If the states want to conduct business transactions such as borrowing money, leasing equipment, establishing contracts and selling goods, these are excellent sections to use under the UCC. Why UCC is necessary

By the turn of the 20th century, as the national economy grew, there seem to be a need, and it became necessary to regulate business transactions in a uniform way (Kent, 2013). The UCC believed to become necessary in order to protect business well as individuals, for uniformity, with a primary purpose to make business laws highly consistent across all the American fifty states by making business activities more predictable and efficient. In the words of the UCC itself, the Code intended “to simplify, clarify and modernize” commercial law, “to permit the continued expansion of commercial practices…” and “to make uniform the law among the various jurisdictions” (Steingold, 2013, para. 1). This unified act, UCC, is an effort to harmonize the law of sales and other commercial transactions within the United States of America in all fifty states (US Legal, Inc., 2013).

Harmonizing the state laws considered also as being of important due to the prevalence of commercial transaction that extend beyond just one state; for example, one state may manufacture the good, another state may warehouse goods, the next state may be use to sell goods, and the last state to deliver the goods. The UCC goal is to achieve substantial uniformity in commercial laws, and at the same time it allows the states the flexibility to meet circumstances locally by modifying the UCC’s text as enacted in each state.

The reason the 50 states have adopted the UCC
Given what’s known about the law of contact verse Uniform Commercial Code, it’s believed that the reason that the 50 states and territories have enacted some versions of UCC is because it addresses most aspects of commercial laws and aspects of uniformity. In addition, the UCC rules applies directly or indirectly to so many transactions concerning business offers goods and/or services (including software) or products that most state more than likely feel it to be a good idea to comply because it brings uniformity. The UCC provides links directly to the state statues and once the state legislature adopts and enacts UCC it then becomes a state statute law and coded. Benefits ; detriments of the UCC replacement

One significant benefit to UCC replacing the traditional law of contracts is that there is no development of contract forms. By adopting the UCC, other benefits are; interstate transactions, standardized commercial expectations, commercial stability, cost reduction and international trade. “The Uniform Commercial Code contributed significantly to the establishing of uniform laws governing commercial transactions from one state to the next: therefore, interstate commerce is more effectively and efficiently undertaken” (Broemmel, 2013, para. 2). UCC also makes commercial transaction less complex, simpler and by using the UCC it will help the states facilitate their sales of good, any banking transaction, as well as other areas within the UCC easier. All business can enjoy standardized commercial expectations because of the state laws governing commercial transaction uniformed. In addition, the UCC develops a strong sense of commercial stability because the UCC requires a contract for a sale of goods over $500 be in writing (Broemmel, 2013, para. 4). As well, because of the commercial standardization created by the Uniform Commercial Code, other benefits of the UCC; cost reduction and price control (Broemmel, 2013, para. 5). Lastly, the benefit for international trade, “the UCC allows for expedited international trade because of the establishment of a uniform system of commercial law in each of the states, both the export and import of goods into the United States undertaken more efficiently, with significantly less red tape and in a more cost-effective manner” (Broemmel, 2013, para. 6).

On the other side, from the commerce standpoint, the disadvantages to the UCC replacing the traditional law of contracts comes into play when it comes to consideration, it potentially does not take everything into account that may be of interest to the state, causing a conflict of laws. Another concern is with the change of technology, and the UCC needs to maintain a pace with the change of technology as methods by which commerce conducted changes. As well, when it comes to UCC filings, Dunn ; Bradstreet states “it is one of their determinants features on their credit report” (Business.com Media, Inc., 2013). “A UCC filing is a business document, filed to the Secretary of State, to enact a lien on a business” (Business.com, Media, Inc., 2013, para. 2).

References
Broemmel, M. ( 2013). What are the benefits of the Uniform Commercial Code? Retrievedfrom http://www.ehow.com/about_5120614_benefits-uniform-commercial-code.html Business.com, Media, Inc. (2013). Dun ; Bradstreet Credit Reports Key Terms. Retrieved from http://www.business.com/guides/dun-and-bradstreet-credit-reports-key-terms-39686/ Cheeseman, H. (2012). Pearson Custom Library: Business law. Nature of Traditional and E-

Contracts, p. 157 – 171. Boston, MA: Pearson Learning
Solutions.
Kent, J. (2013). What Is the Purpose of the Uniform Commercial Code? Chronicles article online. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/purpose-uniform-commercial-code-4915.html Steingold, M., D. (2013, April). What is the UCC? Retrieved from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/what-is-the-ucc.html US Legal, Inc.

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