APUSH Gilded Age notes

Frederick Jackson Turner
The Significance of the Frontier in American History – July 12, 1893 1890 Census – no more defined frontier line; had pockets of settlement spread out Turner Thesis: spirit and success of US is directly tied to westward expansion; a turning point in American Identity American Identity:

created at the juncture between civilization and wilderness
Americans had an identity distinct from Old World
Characteristics: individualism, opportunity, democracy
SIGNIFICANCE: Turner had concluded that the first period of American History had ended (1890 – after the West)

How would other schools of historiography view the West?
How accurate is Turner’s thesis?
What is your historiographical view of the West’s importance in American History?

Five Important Groups
1. Miners
2. Railroads
3. Ranchers
4. Farmers
5. Native Americans (Plain Indians)
Consider what brought them to the West, what brought about the conflicts and why, and how those conflicts got resolved

1) Miners
California Gold Rush 1849 lead to an influx of miners seeking fortune Placer Mining: wash debris away to get mineral
Problems – erosion, mountain collapse
Quartz Mining: go into the interior of the mountain to extract rocks and minerals Problems – explosions, cave ins, dangerous gases
produced boomtowns (which lasted as long as the gold supply did) some became skiing destinations (use debris trailings to smooth the slopes or create a mountain) others had casinos
but most became ghost towns
brought first whites, Africans, Asians out West
money made by big corporation or people involved in getting supplies to miners (the miners didn’t make much)

2) Railroads
Pull Factor: desire in to expand industry, seek new markets, send and receive resources to miners etc. Push Factor: Government subsidizes the development of a Trans-continental railroad out of fear of the threat of sectional division (East/West) Pacific Railway Act (1862) – Federal government granted land and loaned money to Union Pacific – Omaha Nebraska

Central Pacific – Cali
both sold land to settlers who would benefit from living near such a convenient transportation system Promentary Point, Utah – meeting point between the rails of Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads provided for the East a quick way to move West to mining towns (supplies, goods, people for employments of all sorts) SIGNIFICANCE:

Small towns along railroads provide water stations (for steam locomotives), coaling stations, food, lodging, mail delivery, other services Settlers set up farms and homes near railroads (access to resources) Further increase of Western settlement and flow of goods East to West

3) Ranchers
Industry and Immigration:
Because of Civil War, factories in Northeast produced guns – now they’re making railroads and steam engines Need workers, Irish immigrants flock over
More people = More food needed
Brought by the Conquistadores/Spaniards (for leather)
Could survive long drives
By the end of Civil War (1865), 5 million roamed freely on the open range of Texas Worth a nickel a piece in Texas, $13.50 in Northeast
Unemployed veterans of Civil War
Former black slaves
Job – drive cattle North
Railroad – Sedalia Trail: drive through Texas, Arkansas to Missouri; but ticks that longhorns were immune to killed the local cattle As the railroad moved further West, other trails opened:
Chisholm Trail: (to Abilene, Kansas) drive ‘em there because cattle is dying up North; cowboys not always welcomed. In 1867-1871, 1.5 million cattle driven up Chisholm Trail. Western Trail: (from Elsworth, KS) went out to middle of nowhere; saloons, hardware, clothing – Dodge City, KS The Goodnight-Loving Trail: take cattle to producers out West Ranches:

Most owned by big corporations in East or by Europeans
Conflict between ranchers over cattle
Branding: usually took place in spring, claim calves for next year’s herd Cowtowns:
Sleepy nowhere towns became rowdy towns with drunk and disorderly cowboys with $ Bring lawmen to try to keep the peace

4) Farmers
The Homestead Act (1862): Federal government gave settlers 160 acres of land ($10 filing fee) upon the deal of 5 years settlement ? get the title This combined with the Railroad Act help make cheap land openly available Railroads made it possible to transport farm products to Eastern cities
(market – beef, corn, wheat) The Great Plains once were considered too arid to farm were now open to farming because of the development of: The John Deere steel plow – strong enough to cut through tough soil The McCormick reaper/thresher – harvest vast cares of land, separate wheat/corn from stalk, stem, chaff Windmill – allowed farmers to constantly pump water from wells to irrigate crops and feed cattle Dry land farming techniques – such as plugging up cracked soil to stop loss of water Drought resistant crops

Bonanza Farms: massive farming, thousands of acres worked by a single family with the help of machines (wheat farms = 50,000 ac)

Conflict over the Open Range
As farmers settled around railroads and cowtowns (to sell food) they came into conflict with ranchers when cowboys drove their cattle through farmer’s crops Barbed Wire:
Fenced in the farms (cowboys don’t like it cause they can’t move through) Invented by Glidden 1874
Less expensive, more effective
Closes the open range
“Range Wars”:
intensified by barbed wire, but is also solved by barbed wires fenced in ranches
“Sodbusters” (farmers) vs Cowboys
Closing the open range

5) Native Americans
The Plains tribes lived a nomadic lifestyle based entirely upon the wandering of the Great Plains and hunting buffalo Differed from the East Coast Indians
The buffalo provided the Indians with:
(it’s their Wal Mart)
Conflict over resources:
Miners: found rich mineral deposits on Indian’s lands which were burial grounds Railroads: buffalo hunters killed buffalo to keep them off of the railroads and out of the way; skinned the buffalo for the hide to be used in Northeastern industrial factories. Encouraged the decimation of the buffalo Ranchers: killed buffaloes and replaced them with longhorns because they would compete for grazing spots etc. Encouraged the decimation of the buffalo Farmers: want the open range, do not want buffaloes eating their crops; scared of Native Americans. Get rid of buffaloes = get rid of Native Americans. Encouraged the decimation of the buffalo

Us Government Indian Policy
During the Civil War, there were many clashes between the US Army & the Plains Indians During Reconstruction, Congress didn’t want this conflict to get in the way of things so they made the Indian Peace Commission in 1867: 1. 2 big reservations for Indians to live on

2. agents run the reservations and its affairs – like the Freedman’s Bureau 3. US army given total authority to deal with noncompliant groups (force Indians to stay on reservations) Treaty of Medicine Lodge (1867): Southern Plains Indians (Comanches) agreed to move to reservations/Indian territory (present day Oklahoma) on the condition that the US government would stop buffalo hunters from killing buffaloes. This treaty was contradictory and was ultimately designed for self destruction. Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868): Northern Plains Indians (Sioux, Lakota, Cheyenne) agreed to move to Black Hills (South Dakota) but came into conflict with the miners there because of the discovery of gold there. Grant pursued a policy called the “Peace Policy”

1. Religious leaders (Quakers) were to “civilize” the Indians 2. Native Americans were to be assimilated
3. Indians are not allowed to hunt buffaloes; wants them to be sedentary like farmers, ranchers, miners 4. Government provided annuities (welfare)
Reasons for the Failure of the Peace Policy:
Farming/ranching is alien to the Plains culture – women were the only ones
who got involved in any type of agriculture. Telling them to be sedentary and to farm was telling warriors to be like women Warlike cultures – even the Quakers became disillusioned to try to civilize them Congress was late in paying annuities

The money was often stolen by crooked, dishonest agents who would also deliver spoiled goods Government did nothing to stop the buffalo hunters – none of people in the West wanted the buffaloes there anyways Many Indians leave the reservations to return to their nomadic lifestyle; Everyone vs Native Americans

Last of the Frontier Wars
June 27, 1874 – the Comanche clash with the buffalo hunters at the Battle of Adobe Hills. The hunters had long distant shooting rifles which put them at an extreme advantage. SIGNFICANCE: led to the Red River Campaign (which would end the Southern Plains Indians) September 28, 1874 – The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon; Quanah Parker (Indian-Caucasian) vs Colonel McKenzie (9th & 13th – buffalo soldiers). Results: Comanche must flee by foot, the army takes the horses. SIGNIFICANCE: ends the Southern Plains Indians June 25, 1876 – The Battle of the Little Bighorn; Cheyenne/Lakota are forced to move North towards Canada. The campaign in the North continues The Dawes Act (1887) – assimilated the Native Americans, extend the benefits from the Homestead Act to Native Americans; this failed because farming is not culturally accepted – no use in changing them or giving them land they won’t use to farm Battle of Wounded Knee (1890) – Sioux did ghost dance to be resistant to soldier’s bullets = obviously did not work. 200 Native Americans killed; Ends Indian resistance

Final Note
Many of the soldiers that fought the Plains Indians were immigrants or former slaves: Immigrants wanted land made available from the Homestead Act, and the Indians were just in their way Buffalo Soldiers – African Americans, never got massacred, ended resistance in Palo Duro Other Native Americans

The US Army was dependant upon Native American scouts to help them defeat the
Plains Indians After the Indian Wars ended, the reservation had one of the highest rates of enlistment in the US armed forces of any population in the US

Part Two: Industrialization and the Growth of Cities
The Rise of Industrialists and Mass Immigration

1. Natural Resources
Petroleum – Edwin Drake drills the first oil well in Pennsylvania in 1859 Iron (Minnesota)
Coal (Appalachians)
2. Government policies that supported industry – laissez faire (hands off) but the government subsidized the railroads …
economy increases and Westward expansion increases
3. Entrepreneurs: people who had lots of money to invest, so why not help start up factories 4. New inventions – “necessity is the mother of invention” Telegraph – increased efficiency of communication, railroad system Light Bulb – now people can work around the clock

5. Increase in population provide labor force:
immigration from foreign countries
people move from rural to urban

Vertical Integration
Horizontal Integration
purchase of companies at all levels of production
own everything from the bottom up
Ex: Ford
Purchase of competing companies in same industry (owns its competition) Spread out
Ex: General Motors, Pepsi Company

Robber Barons or Industrial Statesmen?
Robber Baron: those who benefit by crushing the poor
Industrial Statesman: successful, hard working individuals
1. John Rockefeller: the Oil industry
monopoly = trust (cartel)
Standard Oil Company
Horizontal and Vertical integration
2. Andrew Carnegie: steel Industry
“rags to riches” – immigrant from Scotland
Carnegie Steel
Bessemer Process to keep up with demands from Railroads
Vertical integration
Retired as the world’s richest man
The Gospel of Wealth – the responsibility of the rich is to be a philanthropist 3. Vanderbilt: steamboat and later bought the Railroad Industry Steamboat and railroad competed with each other anyways

4,500 miles of railroad track
4. Henry Ford: auto industry
Assembly line = standardization, mass production
Ford Motor Company
Vertically integrated
Auto prices dropped to below $500
Development of the suburbs (no longer need to live in city if you can drive) 5. J.P. Morgan: banking
“Morganization” – combined several companies to make the bank larger and more efficient; reorganize troubled businesses to make them more profitable bought Carnegie Steel in 1900 for $480 million
Panic of 1895: loaned government some money to get them out of bankruptcy (big time ballin) His death left a vacuum = Federal Reserve Bank (controlled by Congress – third national bank)

Impact of Industrialization
Rise of the Middle Class
greater comforts
easier access to goods – Sear’s General catalog, department stores less
expensive products
Development of big businesses
Political machines
Labor Unions
Urbanization – a direct result of industrialization

Working Conditions
10-12 hour days, 6 days a week, am/pm shift
Child Labor – deformity and black lungs from coal mines, textile mills; not in school = illiterate Work related dangers: injuries, chemical exposure, no insurance No minimum wage
Feeling and becoming a machine
Women, children, ethnic minorities, immigrants were paid less than white males Child labor < 15 years old
Why Stay:
Better than working on a farm, or in your old country, or sharecropping in the South, etc Better opportunity
Only job available for the unskilled
Could save enough money to buy land
Many eager to take your job if you left (competition)

Formed to help improved the conditions of the industrial workers Surplus labor = conditions aren’t good
Strikes and boycotts to try and get their way
“Illegitimate Conspiracies”
Blacklist: those who were involved in the Unions were put on this list which deemed them unfit to be hired Lockout: anyone of that blacklist could not work; workers not allowed on company property, no pay Pullman Strike: example of conflict of Union and management; 3,000 Pullman Palace Car Company workers reacted to a 25% wage cut by going on a wildcat strike in Illinois on May 11, 1894, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt. [wikipedia] American Railway Union (ARU): first industrial union in US; unionize railway workers Eugene V. Debs: locomotive fireman; leader of ARU,

Employees had to live in company town and bought goods from company store (similar to sharecropping) Depression: company had to cut back on wages, but not on prices Boycott: workers protest because they cannot afford to pay debts/bills with such low wages US government was not so hands off.

Old Immigrants – those who came prior to Civil War (1607 – 1860) Northwest Europe (England, Ireland, France, Germany, Scandinavia) literate
New Immigrants – post Civil War till 1950s
South and East Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Russia) Asia
came to work in factories
European flood:
14 million immigrants
56% of all of the world’s immigrants were going to US
Southern and Eastern Europe
timely and costly to get to a port
The Journey
$65-$100 for a ticket – steerage passage (cheapest)
papers and passports hard to obtain
emotional welfare
8-14 days
unsanitary, diseases easily spread

Arrival in America
Ellis Island, NYC (aka “Island of Tears”)
75% immigrants came to US here
where the processing of passports, documentation, etc took place WOP: without
papers (name given to Italians – the majority of immigrants) Medical Inspections: id tag, open door policy; 20% labeled for additional inspection (got quarantined) Legal Inspections:

Registry Hall: paperwork, stuff like that
32 Questions: to find out if you are a criminal; 2-3 hour wait, few denied entrance (2%)

Ethnic Enclaves
2/3 settled in urban cities:
ease into assimilation
ethnic culture mixed with certain American elements
Tenements: large high rise buildings
crowded multi-family apartment
unsanitary (no plumbing)
cities = 3rd world country nasty
Rural immigrants faired much better (familiar to these elements): Italians – California (vineyards, olive orchards)
Greek – Florida (citrus)
Polish – Mid West (pig farming, cattle ranching, dairy – sausage!) Exploitation: Political machines (corrupt organization that provided jobs, housing, police, heat, fire protection, etc. in exchange for your vote) Tammany Hall: Democratic political machine in NY headed by William Tweed (“Boss Tweed”), the party boss Thomas Nast contributed to the downfall of Tweed with his political cartoon Americanization: public schools set up to educate and Americanize the immigrant children who were working in factories

Asian Immigrants
Taiping Rebellion causes many to flee (push factor)
Gold and Railroad – many jobs available (pull factor)
most moved to Western cities
“Angel Island” – West’s version of Ellis Island (Ellis = Europe, Angel = Asia) Nativists, native born Americans, hostile to immigrants
End of “open door” – shows growing power of the population Chinese Exclusion Act 1882:
banned Chinese immigration for 10 years
renewed in 1892, made permanent in 1902, ended in 1942 (WWII – China was US’ ally) Dillingham Bill 1921:
Establish quotas for the number of immigrants that the US could accept Percentage of population from a specific foreign country is the number they will accept This was to keep the demographics the same

Impossible to enforce, never was

Part Three: Populists and Progressives
Social, Economic, and Political Reformers of the Late 19th Century

Populism: a movement to increase farmers’ political power & to work for legislation in their interest (little guys are hurt by deflation) Money Problems:
New technology increased production which made the value of money go down Railroads had high shipping costs (only means of transportation) The Grange 1869: group of cooperatives, farmer’s who were willing to work collectively to raise farm prices; had warehouses filled with what was harvested to equalize the prices. This fails, membership plummets by 1876 The Farmer’s Alliance 1876:

Lampasas, TX
South and the Great Plains
Emphasized political action – successful
Formed the Populist Party
The Populist Party (aka People’s Party)
Farmer’s Alliance and the Knights of Labor (union)
Political goal:
defeat political machines – secret ballot
direct election of senators instead of election through corrupt state representatives government ownership of railroads and banks
free coinage of silver (increase supply = inflation, helps the farmer; gold vs silver – bimetallism) graduated income tax (the more money you have, the
more tax you must pay – SOCIALISTS) The party reached its peak when they ran candidates for national offices in 1892

Coxey’s Army
Panic of 1892: massive bankruptcies and unemployment
Massillion, Ohio (1894)
Jacob Coxey: leader of an army of unemployed workers; wanted job programs, just simply wanted unemployment problems to be fixed so they could get paid Washington D.C., April 30, 1894
L. Frank Baum – The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (populist allegory) The Wizard of OZ (ounce of gold) = President McKinley
Emerald City = green for money
Wicked Witch of the East = JP Morgan Bank
Witch of the West = Wells Fargo Bank
Tin man = mechanization
Scarecrow = dumb farmer
Lion = William Jennings Bryan (populist, nominee of US President) Dorothy = Theodore Roosevelt (favored bimetallism)
Yellow brick road = gold
Silver slippers = silver
Munchkins = factory workers, the little guys!
Black/White = farm life is “bad”

Rise of Segregation
Resistance and Repression:
Exodusters – 1879: great migration of freedmen to Kansas
Colored Farmer’s National Alliance and Cooperative Union (1886): Educated farmers (much like Freedmen Bureau)
Many joined the Populist Party
Many were landless whites
With many white & black farmers until many Democrat leaders (planter class) began to see them as a threat – used racism (Jim Crow Laws)

Disenfranchising African Americans
Southern states created laws and regulations circumventing the 15th Amendment, barring African Americans from voting Poll tax: $20 fee to vote (few blacks or poor whites could afford this) Literacy tests = many uneducated or schools were substantial, so none of them could pass it “Grandfather Clause” – could vote if an ancestor was on voting ranks (many African Americans could not vote on this basis because it did not apply to them) Legalizing Segregation:

Jim Crow Laws
In 1893, the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was overturned
Plessy vs Ferguson rules separate but equal
African American Response: created anti-lynching campaigns
Ida B. Wells: writer who crusaded against lynching; wrote for African American rights, violence shown to her because she was an embarrassment for the planters Booker T. Washington: economic goals through education and job training (money speaks = Congress will listen) He was the leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama

Had the help from philanthropists like Andrew Carnegie
W.E.B. DuBois: demand rights politically to gain equality

Importance of the Populist Party
1. Showed that the downtrodden could organize and have a political party 2. Introduced many reforms that would be enacted in the 20th Centry a. direct election of senators b. graduated income tax
3. Had a tremendous impact upon both political parties future platforms altruistic; worried about own problems
gets the ball rolling

In contrast to the populists, they are elitists; moves forward with the ball (problems move from top to bottom) Movement created in response to the problems posed by industrialism and modern life during the Gilded Age
Progressives believed government should take an active role in solving society’s problems PROGRESSIVE GOALS:

Social – improve quality of life and improve moral standards (sometimes racist) Economic – encourage competition, break up trusts & monopolies (too much power = undemocratic) Political – make US more democratic

Leaders of Progressive movement were upper class – middle class wealthy who had a voice in society; come from both parties Muckrakers: a journalist/author who investigates and exposes political and/or social corruption (wikipedia) Upton Sinclair: The Jungle (meat industry – Meat Inspection Act 1906) Ida M. Tarbell: The History of the Standard Oil Company (monopolies) Muckraker Jon Spargo’s – The Bitter Cry of Children exposed child labor problem especially in the textile industry GOVERNMENT REFORMS: (electoral process)

Initiative – allows citizens to propose a law (petition)
Referendum – propose legislation to be presented before the citizens for the final approval Recall – voters can hold an election to remove elected officials before their term ends 16th Amendment – graduated income tax (tax is proportionate to income) 17th Amendment – direct election of senators (both passed in 1913) Prohibition: desire to ban the manufacture/sale of alcohol because of social problems – 18th Amendment (then reversed by 21st); led by the Women Christian Temperance Movement Women Suffrage:

Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony since 1840s
Woodrow Wilson pushes for this
19th Amendment – right for women to vote
Child Labor: 1.7 million in low pay, dangerous condition
Keeding-Owen Child Labor Law:
restricted number of hours a child could work
compulsory education laws

The Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
Women and children working in a high rise building
Exits were locked to keep women at their machines
Fire killed 146 people
Ladders were not tall enough to reach past the 6th floor
SIGNIFICANCE: caused people to question unrestricted practices, fire and building codes were instituted

Progressives and Big Businesses
Believed that wealth was concentrated in the hands of too few people Wanted the government to break up trust and holding companies (monopolies) and government to regulate industries that affected most Americans (railroads, utilities) Health & Safety:

The Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906 is a United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines. (wikipedia) Their job is to make work safer for employees

Improve air quality
Install fire codes
Create worker’s compensation (safety net in case of on-the-job injuries) Consumer issues – protect buyers from faulty, illegal items; regulate drugs Eugene Debs: American Socialist Party candidate; reforms

Teddy Roosevelt and the Northern Securities Case:
Breaks up railroad trust (Vanderbilt)
Rockefeller (Standard Oil ? Chevron, Mobile, Conoco, etc)
Enforce the Sherman Anti Trust Act, Interstate Commerce Act; both gave the US government authority to regulate trade between states FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) & ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) T.R.: was a republican, a top progressive, favored bimetallism Woodrow Wilson (Democrat):

Push for federal government to monitor unfair trading practices Regulate banks
Instituted the Federal Reserve Bank (like J.P. Morgan – set interest rates)

The Gilded Age
The Era in History (1866-1900) in which rapid growth of industry, expanding city population, and new inventions made the US appear to “sparkle” – coined by Mark Twain

Beneath the surface lay corruption, poverty, crime, and great disparities between the rich and the poor

Railroads – new economy and expanded federal power
Palo Duro Canyon – defeat of Southern Plains Indians
Windmill – opened Great Plains up for farming
Upton Sinclair – muckraker who wrote The Jungle
Initiative – allowed citizens to propose legislation
Inflation – prices go down, supply up
Promontory Point, Utah – where railroads met
Graduated income tax – 16th amendment
Public school – most important institution for Americanization Philanthropists – wealthy people who gave to charity
Job opportunities – pull factor
The Jungle – revealed problems with the meat-packing industry Horizontal integration – one company owns more companies of the same industry Barbed wire – solved problems with the open range
Nativism – fear that immigrants would take over
Rise of the middle class – one of the consequences of industrialization Wizard of Oz (L. Frank Baum) – allegorical book about the Populist movement Buffalo soldiers – black soldiers who fought against the Indians Ellis Island – 75% of immigrants came through here

Northern Plains Indians – Cheyenne, Sioux, Lakota
William Tweed – ran political machine
Prohibition movement – tried to ban alcohol
Electricity and petroleum – new energy sources
Ghost Dance – Sioux Indians practiced this ritual
Range Wars – barbed wire battles (??)
New immigrants – Catholic, Jews, Southern and Eastern Europeans, etc. Ghettos
– ethnic neighborhoods/enclaves
Roosevelt – passed Pure Food and Drug Act
Interstate Commerce Act – let government regulate railroads under the commerce clause Farmers – turned west into America’s breadbasket
Boomtown – when minerals were found, they popped up overnight Women’s Suffrage – Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, 19th amendment William Jennings Bryan – ran as president for two parties at the same time

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